Nature-based tourism operators’ perceptions and adaptation to climate change in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe

Open access

Abstract

Climate and weather are important resources for tourism. In particular, nature-based tourism activities and operations are largely dependent on and affected by environmental conditions and changes. Due to the significant socio-economic role of the nature-based tourism and the tourism industry, in general, in the region of southern Africa it is important to understand the dynamics between the industry and climate change. A key aspect of this understanding are perceptions and adaptation preparedness of tourism operators towards the estimated impact of climate change. There is a dearth of empirical studies on climate change perceptions and adaptation in nature-based tourism operations across southern Africa and specifically from Zimbabwe. This research gap is addressed in this article which provides an exploratory analysis of the nature of climate change adaptation practices occurring in southern Africa using evidence from Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

Ahmed, M.T. and Hefny, M., 2007: Climate Change and Tourism: An Egyptian Perspective. Ismailia, Egypt: Suez Canal University.

Andersson, L., Wilk, J., Todd, M.C., Hughes, D.A., Earle, A., Kniveton, D., Layberry, R., and Savenije, H.H.G., 2006: Impact of Climate Change and Development Scenarios on Flow Patterns in the Okavango River. Journal of Hydrology, 331: 43-57.

Becken S. and Hay J.E., 2007: Tourism and Climate Change: Risks and Opportunities, Clevedon: Channel View.

Becken, S. 2013: A Review of Tourism and Climate Change as an Evolving Knowledge Domain. Tourism Management Perspectives, 6: 53–62.

Biggs, R., Simons, H., Bakkenes, M., Scholes, R.J., Eickhout, B., van Vuuren, D., and Alkemade, R., 2008: Scenarios of Biodiversity Loss in southern Africa in the 21st Century. Global Environmental Change, 18: 296-309.

Brouder, P. and Lundmark, L., 2011: Climate Change in Northern Sweden: Intra-Regional Perceptions of Vulnerability Among Winter-oriented Tourism Businesses. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(8): 919–933.

de Freitas, C.R., 2005: The Climate-Tourism Relationship and Its Relevance to Climate Change Impact Assessment. In: Gössling, S. and Hall, C.M. (Eds.), Tourism, Recreation and Climate Change, Clevedon: Channel View Publications: 181-191.

Dillimono, H. D. and Dickinson, J. E., 2015: Travel, Tourism, Climate Change, and Behavioural Change: Travelers’ Perspectives From a Developing Country, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23 (3): 437-454. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2014.957212

Dube, K. and Nhamo, G., 2018a: Climate Change and Potential Impacts on Tourism: Evidence from the Zimbabwean side of the Victoria Falls. Environment, Development and Sustainability; 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-018-0118-y.

Dube, K. and Nhamo, G., 2018b: Climate Variability, Change and Potential Impacts on Tourism: Evidence from the Zambian Side of the Victoria Falls. Environmental Science and Policy, 84: 113–123.

Dunlop, J., Ford, A. G., Hovorka, M. D. and Johnston, D., 1997: Elephants, Woodlands and Biodiversity in Southern Africa. South African Journal of Science, 93(5): 231-236 Espiner, S., Orchiston, C. and Higham, J., 2017: Resilience and Sustainability: A Complementary Relationship? Towards a Practical Conceptual Model for the Sustainability-Resilience Nexus in Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(10): 1385–1400.

Fang, Y., Yin, J. and Wu, B., 2018: Climate Change and tourism: A Scientometric Analysis Using CiteSpace. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26: 108-126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1329310

Gössling, S. and Hall, C. M. eds., 2006: Tourism and Global Environmental Change: Ecological, Social, Economic and Political Interrelationships. London: Routledge.

Gössling, S., Bredberg, M., Randow, A., Sandström, E. and Svensson, P., 2006: Tourist Perceptions of Climate Change: A Study of International Tourists in Zanzibar. Current Issues in Tourism, 9(4-5): 419-435.

Gössling, S., Hall, C. M. and Scott, D., 2018: Coastal and Marine Tourism. In M. Salomon and T. Markus (eds.), Handbook on Marine Environment Protection, Cham: Springer International: 773-790.

Hall, C. M., 2006: New Zealand Tourism Entrepreneur Attitudes and Behaviours with Respect to Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 1(3): 229–237.

Hall, C.M., 2008: Tourism and Climate Change: Knowledge Gaps and Issues. Tourism Recreation Research, 33 (3): 339-350.

Hambira, W.L., Saarinen, J., Manwa, H. and Atlhopheng, J.R., 2013: Climate Change Adaptation Practices in Nature-Based Tourism in Maun in the Okavango Delta area Botswana: How Prepared are Tourism Businesses? Tourism Review International, 17: 19-29.

Hoogendoorn, G. and Fitchett, M.J., 2016: Tourism and Climate Change: A Review of Threats and Adaptation Strategies for Africa. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(7): 742-759.

Hoogendoorn, G., Grant, B. and Fitchett, M. J., 2016: Disjunct Perceptions? Climate Change Threats in Two Low Lying South African Coastal Towns. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, 31: 59–71. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bog-2016-0005

IPCC (2014). Organisation History. Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/organization/organization_history.shtml. [Accessed 21 March 2016].

Jessop, B., 2002: Liberalism, Neoliberalism, and Urban Governance: A State–Theoretical Perspective. Antipode, 34(3): 452–472.

Kaján, E. and Saarinen, J., 2013:. Tourism, Climate Change and Adaptation: A Review. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(2): 167–195. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2013.774323.

Kaján, E., Tervo-Kankare, K. and Saarinen, J., 2014: Cost of Adaptation to Climate Change in Tourism: Methodological Challenges and Trends for Future Studies in Adaptation. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(3): 311–317.

Kelly, P. M. and Adger, W. N., 2000: Theory and Practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Facilitating Adaptation. Climatic Change, 47(4): 325–352.

Klein, N., 2014: This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate, New York: Simon & Schuster.

Lew, A.A., 2014: Scale, Change and Resilience in Community Tourism Planning. Tourism Geographies, 16: 14–22.

Marshall, G., 2008: Nesting, Subsidiarity, and Community-based Environmental Governance Beyond the Local Scale. International Journal of the Commons, 2 (1): 75–97.

Martin, M.B.G., 2005: Weather, Climate and Tourism: A Geographical Perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(3): 571-591.

Nalau, J., Preston, B.L. and Maloney, M.C., 2015: Is Adaptation a Local Responsibility? Environmental Science & Policy, 48: 89–98.

Pandy, W., 2017: Tourism Enterprises and Climate Change: Some Research Imperatives. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure,6 (4): 1-18

Pandy, W. and Rogerson, C.M., 2018: Tourism and Climate Change in South Africa: An Exploratory Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions of At Risk Tourism Market Segments. Euroeconomica, 37: 98-112.

Pandy, W. and Rogerson, C.M., 2019: Urban Tourism and Climate Change: Risk Perceptions of Business Tourism Stakeholders in Johannesburg, South Africa. Urbani izziv (in press).

Pang, S.F.H., McKercher, B and Prideaux, B., 2013: Climate Change and Tourism: An Overview. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 18 (1-2): 4-20. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2012.688509.

Prideaux, B. McKercher, B. and McNamara, K.N., 2013: Climate Change and Tourism Editorial. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 18 (1-2): 1-3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2012.688508.

Prideaux, B., Coghlan, A., and McNamara, K., 2010): Assessing Tourists’ Perceptions of Climate Change on Mountain Landscapes. Tourism Recreation Research, 35(2): 187-199.

Rogerson C.M., 2006: Pro-Poor Local Economic Development in South Africa: The Role of Pro-Poor Tourism. Local Environment, 11: 37-60.

Rogerson C.M., 2016; Climate Change, Tourism and Local Economic Development in South Africa. Local Economy, 31 (1-2): 332-331.

Rosselló, J. and Waqas, A., 2015: The Use of Tourism Demand Models in the Estimation of the Impact of Climate Change on Tourism. Revista Turismo em Análise, 26(1): 4-20.

Rutty, M. and Scott, D., 2010: Will the Mediterranean Become “Too Hot” for tourism? A Reassessment. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 7(3): 267–281.

Saarinen, J. and Gill, A.M., 2019: Tourism, Resilience and Governance Strategies in the Transition towards Sustainability. In: J. Saarinen and A.M. Gill (Eds.), Resilient Destinations: Governance Strategies in the Transition towards Sustainability in Tourism, London: Routledge (in press).

Saarinen, J. and Rogerson, C.M., 2014: Tourism and the Millennium Development Goals: Perspectives Beyond 2015. Tourism Geographies, 16(1), 23–30.

Saarinen, J. and Tervo, K., 2006: Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies of the Tourism Industry to Climate Change: The Case of Finnish Nature-Based Tourism Entrepreneurs. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 1(3): 214–228. DOI:10.1504/IJISD.2006.012423.

Saarinen, J., Hambira, W.L., Atlhopheng, J. & Manwa, H., 2012: Tourism Industry Reaction to Climate Change in Kgalagadi South District, Botswana. Development Southern Africa, 29(2): 273-285. DOI: 10.1080/376835X.2012.675697.

Saarinen, J., Hambira, W.L, Atlhopheng, J. & Manwa, H., 2013: Tourism and Climate Change in Southern Africa: Perceived impacts and adaptation strategies of the tourism industry to changing climate and environment in Botswana. In: V. Reddy and K. Wilkes (Eds.), Tourism, Climate Change and Sustainability, London: Routledge: 243-256

Scheyvens, R., 2011; Tourism and Poverty. London: Routledge.

Scott, D., Wall, G. and McBoyle G., 2005: The Evolution of the Climate Change Issue in the Tourism Sector. In: C.M. Hall and J. Higham (Eds.), Tourism, Recreation and Climate Change, Clevedon: Channel View Publications: 45-60.

Scott, D., Hall, C.M. and Gössling, S., 2012): Tourism and Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation & Mitigation. London: Routledge.

Scott A., Higham, J. Gössling, S. and Peeters P., eds. 2013: Understanding and Governing Sustainable Tourism Mobility: Psychological and Behavioural Approaches. London: Routledge.

Sifilo, P. and Henama, U., 2017: Implications of climate change for tourism in Africa. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 20(2): 191-198.

Smit, B. and Wandel, J., 2006: Adaptation, Adaptive Capacity and Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16: 282–292.

Southon, M.P. and van der Merwe, C.D., 2018: Flooded with Risks of Opportunities: Exploring Flooding Impacts on Tourist Accommodation. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(1): 1-16.

Spenceley, A. and Meyer, D., 2012: Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Theory and Practice in Less Economically Developed Countries. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20: 297-317.

Tervo-Kankare, K., Kajan, E. and Saarinen, J., 2018: Costs and Benefits of Environmental Change: Tourism Industry’s Responses in Arctic Finland. Tourism Geographies, 20(2): 202-223.

United Nations, 2015: Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York: United Nations. A/RES/70/1. Available from: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf

Valeix, M. Loveridge, A., Davidson, J., Madzikanda, Z., Fritz, H., MacDonald, W. and David W., 2009: How Key Habitat Features Influence Large Terrestrial Carnivore Movements: Waterholes and African Lions in a Semi-arid Savannah of north-western Zimbabwe. Landscape Ecology, 25 (3): 337. DOI:10.1007/s10980-009-9425-x.

Wall, G., Harrison, R., Kinnaird, V., McBoyle, G., and Quinlan, C., 1986: The Implications of Climate Change for Camping in Ontario. Journal Recreation Research Review, 13: 50–60.

World Bank Group, 2017: World Bank Annual Report 2017. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series

The Journal of Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.63

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.277
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.391

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 91 91 34
PDF Downloads 72 72 29