Rethinking slum tourism: tourism in South Africa’s rural slumlands

Open access

Abstract

Slum tourism is an expanding domain of research focused on organized tours to poorer areas of cities in the global South, such as South Africa’s urban townships. The aim is to contribute towards a reframing of scholarship on slum tourism by directing attention to the phenomenon of tourism development occurring in rural slums or poverty areas of South Africa, namely the former rural Bantustan or Homeland areas. These rural areas are presently the focus of government attention for tourism promotion as part of economic upgrading and employment creation. The key findings are that the expanding tourism economy of these rural slumlands is dominated by domestic tourists rather than international visitors with most tourists engaged in VFR travel including trips to rural second homes. In addition, these areas are important foci for religious pilgrimage. In terms of international scholarship on slum tourism the paper offers the significant observation that the largest share of tourists originate in the country’s urban township areas which are the attractions for international slum tourists. The destinations for visits by international slum tourists are therefore the essential source regions of tourists for visits to the rural poverty areas or slumlands of South Africa. This points to an imperative for broadening the research agenda of slum tourism to incorporate research which examines the tourism mobilities of ordinary residents of townships or favelas.

Allie-Nieftagodien, S., 2013: Pro-Poor Tourism in Alexandra Since 1994: A Case Study of St Michaels Church and SA Jewel. MA Research Report, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

Basu, K., 2012: Slum Tourism: For the Poor, By the Poor. In Frenzel, F., Koens, K. and Steinbrink, M., editors, Slum Tourism: Poverty, Power and Ethics, London, Routledge, 66-82.

Bialostocka, O., 2013: Liberation Heritage Route: Reminiscent of a Painful Past or a Road to the Future?. Pretoria: Africa Institute Policy Brief No. 100.

Booyens, I., 2010: Rethinking Township Tourism: Towards Responsible Tourism Development in South African Townships. In: Development Southern Africa, Vol. 27 (2), pp. 273-287.

Briedenhann, J. and Wickens, E., 2004: Rural Tourism - Meeting the Challenges of the New South Africa. In: International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 6, pp. 189-203.

Burgold, J. and Rolfes, M., 2013: Of Voyeuristic Safari Tours and Responsible Tourism with Educational Value: Observing Moral Communication in Slum and Township Tourism in Cape Town and Mumbai. In: Die Erde, Vol. 144 (2), pp. 161-174.

Burgold, J., Frenzel, F. and Rolfes, M., 2013: Observations on Slums and Their Touristification. In: Die Erde, Vol. 144 (2), pp. 99-104.

Carruthers, J., 2011: Pilanesberg National Park, North West Province, South Africa: Uniting Economic Developoment With Ecological Design - A History, 1960s to 1984. In: Koedoe, Vol. 53 (1) Art 1028, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v53i1.1028

Chege, P.W. and Mwisukha, A., 2013: Benefits of Slum Tourism in Kibera Slum in Nairobi, Kenya. In: International Journal of Arts and Commerce, Vol. 2 (4), pp. 94-102.

Chege, P.W. and Wewere, F.K., 2014: Assessment of Status, Challenges and Viability of Slum Tourism: Case Study of Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya. In: Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 4 (6), pp. 38-48.

Clark, S.J., Collinson, M.A., Kahn, K., Drullinger, K. and Tollman, S.M., 2007: Returning Home to Die: Circular Labour Migration and Mortality in South Africa. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 35 (Suppl 69), pp. 35-44.

Crush, J. and Wellings, P., 1983: The Southern African Pleasure Periphery 1966-83. In: Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 21, pp. 673-698.

CSIR, 2013: Priority Districts Analyses for Economic Transformation: High Impact (Catalytic) Infrastructure Intervention Areas. Report produced for De partment of Rural Development and Land Reform, Pretoria.

Department of Tourism, 2011: National Tourism Sector Strategy. Pretoria, National Department of Tourism.

Department of Tourism, 2012a: Annual Report 2011/2012, Pretoria, National Department of Tourism.

Department of Tourism, 2012b: Domestic Tourism Growth Strategy 2012-2020. Pretoria, National Department of Tourism.

Department of Tourism, 2012c: Rural Tourism Strategy. Pretoria, National Department of Tourism.

Department of Tourism, 2012d: The National Heritage and Cultural Tourism Strategy. Pretoria, National Department of Tourism.

Dickson, J.L., 2012: Revisiting ‘Township Tourism’: Multiple Mobilities and the Re-Territorialisation of Township Spaces in Cape Town, South Africa. In: Anthropology Southern Africa, Vol. 35, pp. 31-39.

Durr, E., 2012: Urban Poverty, Spatial Representation and Mobility: Tourism a Slum in Mexico. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 36, pp. 706-724.

Ferrario, F., 1988: Emerging Leisure Market Among the South African Black Population. In: Tourism Management, Vol. 9, pp. 23-38.

Freire-Medeiros, B., 2009: The Favela and its Touristic Transits. In: Geoforum, Vol. 40 (2), pp. 580-588.

Frenzel, F., 2012: Beyond ‘Othering’: The Political Roots of Slum Tourism. In Frenzel, F., Koens, K. and Steinbrink, M., editors, Slum Tourism: Poverty, Power and Ethics, London, Routledge, 49-65.

Frenzel, F., 2013: Slum Tourism in the Context of the Tourism and Poverty (Relief) Debate. In: Die Erde, Vol. 144, pp. 117-128

Frenzel, F., Koens, K. and Steinbrink, M. (eds.), 2012: Slum Tourism: Poverty, Power and Ethics. London: Routledge.

George, R. and Booyens, I., 2014: Township Tourism Demand: Tourists’ Perceptions of Safety and Security. In: Urban Forum, 25 (4), in press.

Harvey, R.A., 2011: Tourism is Everyone’s Business: The Participants and Places of Township Tourism in Cape Town. PhD dissertation, University of Florida.

Hoogendoorn, G., 2011: Low-income Earners as Second Home Tourists in South Africa. In: Tourism Review International, Vol. 15 (1/2), pp. 37-50.

Kieti, D.M. and Magio, K.O., 2013: The Ethical and Local Resident Perspectives of Slum Tourism in Kenya. In: Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research, Vol. 1 (1), 37-57.

Koens, K., 2012: Competition, Cooperation and Collaboration: Business Relations and Power in Township Tourism. In Frenzel, F., Koens, K. and Steinbrink, M., editors, Slum Tourism: Poverty, Power and Ethics, London, Routledge, 83-103

Koens, K., Frenzel, F. and Steinbrink, M., 2012: Concluding Thoughts: Keep on Slumming?. In Frenzel, F., Koens, K. and Steinbrink, M., editors, Slum Tourism: Poverty, Power and Ethics, London, Routledge, 232-240.

Legassick, M., 1977: Gold, Agriculture and Secondary Industry in South Africa, 1885-1970: From Periphery to Sub-Metropole as a Forced Labour System. In Palmer, R. and Parsons, N. editors, The Roots of Rural Poverty in Central and Southern Africa, Berkeley, University of California Press, 175-200.

Leibbrandt, M., 2011: Labour Market Restructuring and South Africa’s Rural Homeland Communities in the 1980s. In: Economic History of Developing Regions, Vol. 26 (1), pp. 101-119.

Lohnert, B. and Steinbrink, M., 2005: Rural and Urban Livelihoods: A Translocal Perspective in a South African Context. In: South African Geographical Journal, Vol. 87 (2), pp. 95-105.

Magi, L. and Nzama, T.A., 2009: Tourism Strategies and Local Community Responses Around the World Heritage Sites in KwaZulu-Natal. In: South African Geographical Journal, Vol. 91 (2), pp. 94-102.

Magio, K., 2012: Slum Tourism in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya: Philanthropic Travel or Organised Exploitation of Poverty?, Saarbrucken, Lap Lambert.

Magubane, B., 1975: The ‘Native Reserves’ (Bantustans) and The Role of the Migrant Labor System in the Political Economy of South Africa. In Safa, H.I. and du Toit, B.M., editors, Migration and Development, The Hague, Mouton, 225-267

Ndabeni, L. and Rogerson, C.M., 2005: Entrepreneurship and Rural Tourism: The Challenges of South Africa’s Wild Coast, In: Africa Insight, Vol. 35 (4), pp. 130-141

Ndlovu, N. and Rogerson, C.M., 2003: Rural Local Economic Development Through Community-based Tourism: The Mehloding Hiking and Horse Trail, Eastern Cape, South Africa. In: Africa Insight, Vol. 33, pp. 124- -129.

Nemasetoni, I. and Rogerson, C.M., 2005: Developing Small Firms in Township Tourism: Emerging Tour Operators in Gauteng, South Africa. In: Urban Forum, Vol. 16, pp. 196-213. Neves, D. and du Toit, A., 2013: Rural livelihoods in South Africa: Complexity, Vulnerability and Differentiation. In: Journal of Agrarian Change, Vol. 13 (1), pp. 93-115.

Nuissl, H. and Heinrichs, D., 2013: Slums: Perspectives on the Definition, the Appraisal and the Management of an Urban Phenomenon. In: Die Erde, Vol. 144 (2), pp. 105-116.

Nzama, T.A., 2008: Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism on the Rural Areas Within the World Heritage Sites - The case of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage, Vol. 1 (1), pp. 1-8

Nzama, T.A., 2010: Challenges of Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in KwaZulu-Natal. In: Inkanyiso, Vol. 2 (1), pp. 44-53.

Pickles, J., 1991: Industrial Restructuring: Peripheral Industrialization and Rural Development in South Africa. In: Antipode, Vol. 23, pp. 68-91

Rogerson, C.M., 1990: Sun International: The Making of a South African Tourism Multinational. In: GeoJournal Vol. 22, pp. 345-354.

Rogerson, C.M., 1995: Forgotten Places, Abandoned Places: Migration Research Issues in South Africa. In: Baker, J. and Aina, T., editors, The Migration Experience in Africa, Uppsala, Nordic Africa Institute, 109-121.

Rogerson, C.M., 1998: Restructuring the Apartheid Space Economy. In: Regional Studies, Vol. 32, pp. 187-197.

Rogerson, C.M., 2002: Tourism-led Local Economic Development: The South African Experience. In: Urban Forum, Vol. 14, pp. 53-79.

Rogerson, C.M., 2003: Changing Casino Tourism in South Africa. In: Africa Insight, Vol. 33, pp. 142-149.

Rogerson, C.M., 2004: Urban Tourism and Small Tourism Enterprise Development in Johannesburg: The Case of Township Tourism. In: GeoJournal, Vol. 60, pp. 249-257.

Rogerson, C.M., 2008: Shared Growth and Urban Tourism: Evidence from Soweto. In: Urban Forum, Vol. 19, pp. 395-411.

Rogerson, C.M., 2013: Tourism and Local Development in South Africa: Challenging Local Governments. In: African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, Vol. 19 (Supplement 2), pp. 9-23.

Rogerson, C.M., 2014: The Uneven Geography of Tourism in South Africa. In: African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Vol. 3 (1), pp. 1-15.

Rogerson, C.M. and Lisa, Z., 2005: ‘Sho’t Left’: Promoting Domestic Tourism in South Africa. In: Urban Forum, Vol. 16, pp. 88-111. Rogerson, C.M. and Rogerson, J. M., 2011: Tourism Research Within the Southern African Development Community: Production and Consumption in Academic Journals, 2000-2010. In: Tourism Review International, Vol. 15 (1/ 2), pp. 213-222.

Rogerson, C.M. and Visser, G., editors, 2004: Tourism and Development Issues in Contemporary South Africa, Pretoria, Africa Institute of South Africa.

Rogerson, C.M. and Visser, G., 2006: International Tourist Flows and Urban Tourism in South Africa. In: Urban Forum, Vol. 17, pp. 199-213.

Rogerson, C.M. and Visser, G., editors, 2007: Urban Tourism in the Developing World: The South African Experience, London, Transaction Press.

Rogerson, C.M. and Visser, G., 2011: African Tourism Geographies: Existing Paths and New Directions. In: Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Vol. 102 (3), pp. 251-259.

Rolfes, M., 2010: Poverty Tourism: Theoretical Reflections and Empirical Findings Regarding an Extraordinary Form of Tourism. In: GeoJournal, Vol. 75 (5), pp. 421-442.

Rolfes, M., Steinbrink, M. and Uhl, C., 2009: Townships as Attraction: An Empirical Study of Township Tourism in Cape Town, Potsdam, University of Potsdam.

Saayman, A., Saayman, M. and Gyekye, A., 2013: Perspectives on the Regional Economic Value of a Pilgrimage. In: International Journal of Tourism Research. DOI: 10: 1002/jtr.1936

Snowball, J.D. and Courtney, S., 2010: Cultural Heritage Routes in South Africa: Effective Tools for Heritage Conservation and Local Economic Development? In: Development Southern Africa, Vol. 27 (4), pp. 563- -576.

Steinbrink, M., 2009: Urbanisation, Poverty and Translocality: Insights from South Africa. In: African Population Studies, Vol. 23 (Suppl.), pp. 220-252.

Steinbrink, M., 2010: Football and Circular Migration Systems in South Africa. In: Africa Spectrum, 45 (2), pp. 35-60.

Steinbrink, M., 2012: ‘We Did the Slum!’: Urban Poverty Tourism in Historical Perspective. In: Tourism Geographies, Vol. 14 (2), pp. 213-234.

Steinbrink, M., 2013: Festifavelisation: Mega-events, Slums and Strategic City-staging -The Example of Rio de Janeiro. In: Die Erde, Vol. 144 (2), pp. 129-145.

Steinbrink, M., Frenzel, F. and Koens, K., 2012 Development and Globalization of a New Trend in Tourism. In Frenzel, F., Koens, K. and Steinbrink, M., editors, Slum Tourism: Poverty, Power and Ethics, London, Routledge, 1-17.

Teversham, E., 2013: The Nature of Leisure in the Manyeleti Game Reserve for Africans, South Africa, 1967-1985. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 30 (16), 1877-1888.

Todes, A., Kok, P., Wentzel, M., Van Zyl, J., and Cross, C., 2010: Contemporary South African Urbanization Dynamics. In: Urban Forum, Vol. 21, 331-348. Visser, G. and Hoogendoorn, G., 2011: Current Paths in South African Tourism Research. In: Tourism Review International, Vol. 15 (1/2), pp. 5-20.

Visser, G and Hoogendoorn, G., 2012: Uneven Tourism Development in South Africa: Another Ongoing Struggle. In: Africa Insight, Vol. 42 (2), pp. 66-75.

Wolpe, H., 1972: Capitalism and Cheap Labour Power in South Africa: From Segregation to Apartheid. In: Economy and Society, Vol. 1, pp. 253-285.

Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series

The Journal of Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.63

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.277
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.391

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 410 410 38
PDF Downloads 218 218 21