Populist discourse on political representation: a case study of anti-establishment organizations in Lithuania

Open access

Abstract

Today’s party democracy crisis coincides with an increasing influence of populist political actors. This article- prompted by notions of populist understandings of politics as expressions of the people’s will and of the populist idea of an antagonism between the people and the elite-explores whether populism and party democracies are compatible. Assertions, that populism contradicts party democracies, should rest on research of populist understandings of political representation. This case study, of the populist discourse of Lithuania’s anti-establishment organizations, fills this research gap in the literature on populism’s compatibility with party democracies. The qualitative analysis of this case study focuses on how political representation is perceived and presented. The study provides new insights for theoretical debate on the compatibility of populism and party democracy and also presents a nuanced picture of populist perceptions of political representation.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abts K. and Rummens S. 2007. Populism versus Democracy. Political Studies 55(2) pp. 405-424.

  • Bingelienė R. 2015. Darius Kuolys: Ačiū vilniečiams už pasitikėjimą - stengsimės jį pateisinti. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2015].

  • Blais A. Gidengil E. and Nevitte N. 2004. Where does Turnout Decline Come from? European Journal of Political Research 43(2) pp. 221-236.

  • Canovan M. 1999. Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy. Political studies 47(1) pp. 2-16.

  • Catterberg G. and Moreno A. 2006. The Individual Bases of Political Trust: Trends in New and Established Democracies. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 18(1) pp. 31-48.

  • Dalton R. J. and Wattenberg M. P. eds. 2000. Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Dalton R. J. 2004. Democratic Challenges Democratic Choices: The Erosion of Political Support in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • De Lange S. L. and Art D. 2011. Fortuyn versus Wilders: An Agency-based Approach to Radical Right Party Building. West European Politics 34(6) pp. 1229-1249.

  • Diamond L. and Gunther R. 2001. Political Parties and Democracy. Johns Hopkins University Press.

  • Dzežulskis-Duonys E. 2015a. Antrojo turo galvosūkis kauniečiams. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2015].

  • Dzežulskis-Duonys E. 2015b. Ar sulūš sistema? [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2015].

  • Fuchs D. and Klingemann H. eds. 1995. Citizens and the State Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Gray M. and Caul M. 2000. Declining Voter Turnout in Advanced Industrial Democracies 1950 to 1997 the Effects of Declining Group Mobilization. Comparative political studies 33(9) pp. 1091-1122.

  • Hanley S. and Sikk A. 2014. Economy Corruption or Floating voters? Explaining the Breakthroughs of Antiestablishment Reform Parties in Eastern Europe. Party Politics pp. 1-14.

  • Imbrasaitė J. 2004. Socialinis kapitalas ir politinis dalyvavimas Lietuvoje. Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas 1 pp. 38-50.

  • Jansen R. S. 2011. Populist Mobilization: A New Theoretical Approach to Populism. Sociological Theory 29(2) pp. 75-96.

  • Jastramskis M. 2010. Partinių sistemų stabilumo samprata ir matavimas: Lietuvos situacija 1990-2010 metais. Parlamento studijos 9 pp. 144-169.

  • Kaltwasser C. R. 2013. The Responses of Populism to Dahl’s Democratic Dilemmas. Political Studies 62(3) pp. 470-487.

  • Katz R. S. 1986. Party Government: a Rationalistic Conception. In: F. G. Castles and R. Windelman eds. 1986. Visions and Realities of Party Government 1 pp. 31-71.

  • Kriesi H. 2014. The Populist Challenge. West European Politics 37(2) pp. 361-378.

  • Kuolys D. 2012. Lietuvos Sąrašas rinkimuose siūlo alternatyvą. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2015].

  • Levi M. and Stoker L. 2000. Political Trust and Trustworthiness. Annual Review of Political Science 3(1) pp. 475-507.

  • Mair P. 2011. Bini Smaghi vs. the Parties: Representative government and institutional constraints. EUI working papers.

  • Manin B. 1997. The Principles of Representative Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Maskoliūnienė G. 2015a. Rytis Račkauskas: Nesustokime teliko vos vienas žingsnis. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2015].

  • Maskoliūnienė G. 2015b. Patikimumo garantas - užgrūdintas pilietiškumo jausmas. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2015].

  • Moffitt B. and Tormey S. 2014. Rethinking Populism: Politics Mediatisation and Political Style. Political Studies 62(2) pp. 381-397.

  • Molytė L. 2013. Lietuvos Sąrašo siūlomas pilietinio veikimo trikampis: tautos galių savivaldos ir teisėtvarkos atkūrimas. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2015].

  • Movement TOGETHER 2013a. Pilietinio judėjimo KARTU deklaracija. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2015].

  • Movement TOGETHER 2013b. Pilietinio judėjimo KARTU įstatai. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2015].

  • Movement TOGETHER 2014. Priimti svarbūs sprendimai. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2015].

  • Mudde C. and Kaltwasser C.R. eds. 2012. Populism in Europe and the Americas: Threat or Corrective for Democracy? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Mudde C. 2004. The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition 39(4) pp. 542-563.

  • Mudde C. 2007. Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Mudde C. 2013. Three Decades of Populist Radical Right Parties in Western Europe: So What?. European Journal of Political Research 52(1) pp. 1-19.

  • Mudde C. 2014. The Far Right in the 2014 European Elections: Of Earthquakes Cartels and Designer Fascists. The Washington Post [online] May 30. Available at: [Accessed on 22 May 2015].

  • Norris P. ed. 1999. Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Government: Global Support for Democratic Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Norris P. 2005. Radical Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Oliver P. and Johnston H. 2000. What a Good Idea! Ideologies and Frames in Social Movement Research. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 5(1) pp. 37-54.

  • Pabiržis D. 2013. Populistinės ideologijos partijos Baltijos šalyse 2011-2012 m. Politikos mokslų almanachas 14 pp. 115-137.

  • Pasquino G. 2007. Populism and Democracy. In: D. Albertazzi and D. McDonnell eds. 2007. Twenty-First Century Populism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan pp. 15-29.

  • Pauwels T. 2011. Measuring Populism: A Quantitative Text Analysis of Party Literature in Belgium. Journal of Elections Public Opinion and Parties 21(1) pp. 97-119.

  • Pitkin H. F. 1967. The Concept of Representation. University of California Press.

  • Poguntke T. 1996. Anti‐party Sentiment ‐ Conceptual Thoughts and Empirical Evidence: Explorations into a Minefield. European Journal of Political Research 29(3) pp. 319-344.

  • Pop-Eleches G. 2010. Throwing out the Bums: Protest Voting and Unorthodox Parties after Communism. World Politics 62(2) pp. 221-260.

  • Račkauskas R. and Navickas A. 2015. Rytis Račkauskas: Sieksiu jog mieste atsirastų reali savivalda. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April2015].

  • Račkauskas R. 2015. Politikos senbuviai pajuto grėsmę patogiai egzistencijai. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2015].

  • Ramonaitė A. ed. 2009. Partinės demokratijos pabaiga? Politinis atstovavimas ir ideologijos. Vilnius: Versus Aureus.

  • Rooduijn M. and Pauwels T. 2011. Measuring Populism: Comparing Two Methods of Content Analysis. West European Politics 34(6) pp. 1272-1283.

  • Rooduijn M. 2013. The Nucleus of Populism: In Search of the Lowest Common Denominator. Government and Opposition 49(4) pp. 573-599.

  • Rosanvallon P. 2008. Counter-democracy: Politics in an Age of Distrust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Savage L. 2014. Hey Media! Central and Eastern European Countries Voted in the European Parliamentary Elections too… The Washington Post: Monkey Cage [online] 28 May. Available at: [Accessed on 22 May 2015].

  • Schattschneider E. E. 1941. Party Government. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

  • Schedler A. 1996. Anti-Political-Establishment Parties. Party Politics 2(3) pp. 291-312.

  • Snow D. A. and Benford R. D. 1988. Ideology Frame resonance and Participant Mobilization. International Social Movement Research 1 pp. 197-218.

  • Taggart P. 2000. Populism. Buckingham: Open University Press.

  • Taggart P. 2002. Populism and the Pathology of Representative Politics. In: Y. Mény and Y. Surel eds. 2002. Democracies and the Populist Challenge. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian pp. 62-80.

  • Taggart P. 2004. Populism and Representative Politics in Contemporary Europe. Journal of Political Ideologies 9(3) pp. 269-288.

  • The Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Lithuania 2012. Election to the Seimas and the Referendum on the Construction of a New Nuclear Power Plant in the Republic of Lithuania. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 15 January 2016].

  • The Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Lithuania 2014 a. Referendum on the Amendment of Articles 9 47 and 147 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania 29 June 2014. Available at: [Acessed on 15 January 2016].

  • The Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Lithuania 2014b. Elections of the President of Republic of Lithuania May 11 2014. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 15 January 2016].

  • The List of Lithuania 2015. Lietuvos Sąrašo rinkimų į Vilniaus miesto tarybą programa. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2015].

  • Učeň P. 2007. Parties Populism and Anti-establishment Politics in East Central Europe. SAIS review 27(1) pp. 49-62.

  • United Democratic Movement 2010. Jungtinio demokratinio judėjimo steigiamasis susirinkimas. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 March 2015].

  • Urbinati N. 2006. Representative Democracy: Principles and Genealogy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Urbinati N. 2014. Democracy Disfigured Harvard University Press.

  • Urbšys P. 2014. Kodėl esame „Grūto parko“ žaisliukai. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2015].

  • Urbšys P. 2015. Nejaugi nebėra iš ko rinktis? [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2015].

  • Weyland K. 2001. Clarifying a Contested Concept: Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics.Comparative politics 1 pp. 1-22.

  • Zabielienė R. and Žiliukas R. 2012. Pareiškimas dėl seniūnaičių rinkimų Kauno mieste. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 March 2015].

  • Zabielienė R. 2014. Kaune startuoja N. Puteikio pilietinis rinkimų komitetas. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 March 2015].

  • Zabielienė R. 2015. Jungtinis demokratinis judėjimas. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 March 2015].

  • Zaremba A. 2013. Ar egzistuoja radikali dešinė Lietuvoje? Politologija 3(71) pp. 46-77.

  • Žiliukaitė R. et al. 2006. Neatrasta galia: Lietuvos pilietinės visuomenės žemėlapis. Vilnius: Versus Aureus.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 185 110 5
PDF Downloads 208 190 28