Distribution, abundance and environmental conditions of the clonal aquatic fern Salvinia natans (L.) All. in the Vistula delta (Baltic Sea Region)

Open access


We examined the distribution, resources and environmental conditions of the clonal aquatic fern Salvinia natans (L.) All., expansive in the Vistula delta (N Poland). Before 2006, there were 7 stands of this species, while in the years 2006-2010 their number increased to 21. The most abundant populations were found in the rivers: Tuga (133.0±37.6 indiv./0.1 m2), Fiszewka( 79.3±6.0), Szkarpawa (74.7±5.0), Struga Orłowska (61.0±2.0), Nogat (52.3±2.5), Elbląg (40.3±31.8), Wiślano-Zalewowy Canal (61.3±3.2) and in the SW part of Lake Druzno (72.3±2.5). S. natans did not colonise the weakly saline Vistula Lagoon and Elbląg Bay, which belong to the Baltic Sea. The plant under study occurred in shallow (2.2±1.5 m), narrow (17.9±13.6 m), slow-flowing (0.11±0.12 m s-1) and fertile (4.7±4.2 mg TN dm-3, 0.7±0.4 mg TP dm-3) watercourses. The water in them had neutral or alkaline pH (7.2-9.2) and was weakly saline (53.8±21.3 mg Cl dm-3). A dense mat of S. natans significantly affected the environmental conditions in the watercourses: water oxygenation, PAR intensity and concentration of biogenic substances, especially phosphorus, decreased.

Battle J. M. & Mihuc T. B. 2000. Decomposition dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in the lower Atchafalaya, a large floodplain river. Hydrobiologia 418: 123-136.

Casper S. J. & Krausch H. D. 1980. Pteridophyta und Anthophyta. Lycopodiaceae bis Orchidaceae, pp. 72-74. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.

Cordo H. & Center T. D. 2000. Watch out water-hyacinth! New jungle enemies are coming. Agricultural Research, March 2001.

Eaton A. D., Clesceri L. S., Rice E. W. & Greenberg A. E. 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 1368 pp. Am. Publ. Health Ass., Washington.

Gałka A. & Szmeja J. 2012 (in press). Phenology of the aquatic fern Salvinia natans (L.) All. in the Vistula Delta in the context of climate warming. Limnologica.

Glimn-Lacy J. & Kaufman P. B. (eds.). 2006. Botany Illustrated. Introduction to plants. Major groups. Flowering plants families. 278 pp. Springer Groups.

Howard G. W. & Harley K. L. S. 1998. How do floating aquatic weeds affect wetland conservation and development? How can these effects be minimised? Wetlands Ecology and Management 5: 215-225.

Hurrell J. W. 1995. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation. Science 269: 676-679.

Hurrell J. W. 1996. Influence of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23: 665-668.

Jalas J. & Suominen J. 1972. Atlas Florae Europaeae. 1, Pteridophyta, 121 pp. Comm. for Mapping the Flora of Europe and SBF Vanamo, Helsinki.

Kaenel B. R., Buehrer H. & Uehlinger U. 2000. Effects of aquatic plant management on stream metabolism and oxygen balance in streams. Freshwater Biology 45: 85-95.

Klinggraeff H. 1858. Die höheren Cryptogamen Preussens. Ein Beitrag zur Flora der Provinz. p. 210. Verlag von Wilchelm Koch, Kőnnigsberg.

Latałowa M. & Święta J. 2003. The Late-glacial and Holocene succession of local vegetation in the area of Szczecin Lagoon. In: R. K. Borówka & A. Witkowski (eds.). Człowiek i środowisko przyrodnicze Pomorza Zachodniego, II, pp. 123-129. Oficyna IN PLUS, Szczecin.

Markowski R., Żółkoś K. & Bloch-Orłowska J. 2004. Salvinianatans (L.) All. in Gdańsk Pomerania. Acta Bot. Cassub. 4: 187-196.

Marsz A. & Styszyńska A. 2010. Changes in sea surface temperature of the South Baltic Sea (1854-2005). In: R. Przybyla k (ed.) The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview, pp. 355-374. Springer, The Netherlands.

McFarla nd D. G., Nels on L. S., Grodowitz M. J., Sma rt R.

M. & Owens C. S. 2004. Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell (Giant Salvinia) in the United States: a review of species ecology and approaches to management. 41 pp. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Washington.

Meusel H., Jäger E. & Weinert E. 1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. I. Text 583 pp., Karten 258 pp. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.

Perna C. & Burrows D. 2005. Improved dissolved oxygen status following removal of exotic weed mats in important fish habitat lagoons of the tropical Burdekin River floodplain, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51: 138-148.

Pieterse A. H. & Murphy K. J. 1990. Aquatic weeds. The ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation. 593 pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Rothmaler W., Schubert R. & Went W. 1986. Excursionsflora für die Gebiete der DDR und der BRD. Bd. 4, Kritischer Band, 811 pp. Volk u. Wissen Volkseigener Verl., Berlin.

Schlettwein C. H. G. & Bethune S. 1992. Aquatic weeds and their management in southern Africa: Biological control of Salvinia molesta in the eastern Caprivi. In: T. Matiza & H. N. Chab wela (eds.). Wetlands conservation conference for southern Africa. 187 pp. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Sebald O., Seybold S. & Philipp i G. 1990. Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Baden-Württembergs. 1, 613 pp. Stuttgart.

Sepp ä H. & Poska A. 2004. Holocene annual mean temperature changes in Estonia and their relationship to solar insolation and atmospheric circulation patterns. Quaternary Research 61: 22-31.

Sillasoo Ü., Poska A., Seppä H., Blaauw M. & Chambers F. M. 2009: Linking past cultural developments to palaeoenvironmental changes in Estonia. Veget Hist Archaeobot 18: 315-327.

Smith A. R., Pryer K. M., Schuettpelz E., Korall P., Schneider H. & Wolf P. G. 2006. A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55: 7050-731.

Spałek K. 2008. Salvinia natans (L.) All. in fishponds and oxbow lakes in Lower and Opole Silesia (SW Poland). In: E. Szczęśniak & E. Gola (eds.). Club mosses, horsetails and ferns in Poland - resources and protection, pp. 147-160. Polish Botanical Society and Institute of Plant Biology, Wrocław University, Wrocław.

Szmeja J. 2006. A guide to the study of aquatic vegetation. 467 pp. Gdańsk Univ. Press, Gdańsk.

Szmeja J., Gałka A., Styszyńska A. & Marsz A. 2012 (in press). Climate change is responsible for expansion of the aquatic plant Salvinia natans (L.) All. in the Vistula Delta (south Baltic Sea coast). Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St.

Święta-Musznicka J., Latałowa M., Szmeja J. & Badura M. 2011. Salvinia natans in medieval wetland deposits in Gdańsk, northern Poland: evidence for the early medieval climate warming. J. Paleolimnol. 45: 369-383.

Tropepi R. & Ribecai C. 2000. An unusual process structure in Tresarcus, a new acritarch genus from the Ordovician in Öland, Sweden. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 111: 103-109.

Wolff P. & Schwarzer A. 2005. Der Schwimmfarn Salvinianatans (L.) All. (Salviniaceae) in der Pfalz. Mitt. Pollichia 91: 83-96.

Zając A. & Zając M. (eds.). 2001. Distribution Atlas of Vascular Plants in Poland. xii+714 pp. Edited by Laboratory of Computer Chorology, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Cracow.

Zandstra K. J. 1966. The occurrence of Salvinia natans (L.) in Holocene deposits of the Rhine delta. Acta Bot. Neerl. 15: 389-393.

Zutshi D. P. & Vass K. K. 1971. Ecology and production of Salvinia natans Hoffim in Kashmir. Hydrobiologia 38: 303-320.

Biodiversity Research and Conservation

The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 122 122 7
PDF Downloads 47 47 0