Study aim: To evaluate energy, macronutrient, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate daily intake in young healthy Polish male students. Material and methods: Two hundred and sixteen participants were physical education students engaged in regular physical activity (about 9 h/week) and were recognized as physically active. One hundred and fourteen students were from other specializations participating in 1.5 h/week gymnastics classes and were recognized as sedentary. Body mass and height were measured using standard medical equipment. Body fat was evaluated from four skinfold measurements. In all subjects daily intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium and phosphate was briefly assessed from 24-hour food records taken over 4 days. Results: The active students’ diet was characterized by significantly higher energy, macronutrient and mineral daily intake. Moreover, calcium to phosphorus and calcium to magnesium ratios in active subjects were higher than in sedentary ones. There was no significant difference between groups in protein or magnesium intake expressed per 1000 kcal. In contrast, daily intake of fat and phosphate expressed per 1000 kcal was significantly lower in the active students vs. sedentary ones (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05 for fat and phosphate, respectively). Active students were characterized by significantly higher carbohydrate and calcium intake per 1000 kcal in comparison with their sedentary counterparts (p < 0.001 for both variables). Conclusions: The dietary pattern of active students was found to be slightly but significantly better than that of their sedentary counterparts. However, in both groups it was far from being a healthy one.
5. Bertrandt J. Kłos A. Szymańska W. (2013) Assessment of bone calcification in students from selected universi¬ties. Probl. Hig. Epidemiol. 94: 130-133.
6. Blaine J. Chonchol M. Levi M. (2015) Renal control of calcium phosphate and magnesium homeostasis. Clin. J. Am. Soc Nephrol. 10: 1257-1272.
7. Boylan S. Welch A. Pikhart H. Malyutina S. Pajak A. Kubinova R. Bragina O. Simonova G. Stepaniak U. Gilis-Januszewska A. Milla L. Peasey A. Marmot M. Bobak M. (2009) Dietary habits in three Central and Eastern European countries: the HAPIEE study. BMC Public. Health 9: 439.
8. Brown E.M. (2013) Role of the calcium-sensing recep¬tor in extracellular calcium homeostasis. Best. Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 27: 333-343.
9. Calvo M.S. Tucker K.L. (2013) Is phosphorus intake that exceeds dietary requirements a risk factor in bone health? Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1301: 29-35.
10. Calvo M.S. Uribarri J. (2013) Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 98: 6-15.
11. Dai Q. Shu X.O. Deng X. Xiang Y.B. Li H. Yang G. Shrubsole M.J. Ji B. Cai H. Chow W.H. Gao Y.T. Zheng W. (2013) Modifying effect of calcium/magnesi¬um intake ratio and mortality: a population-based cohort study. BMJ Open.; 3.
12. Dermience M. Lognay G. Mathieu F. Goyens P. (2015) Effects of thirty elements on bone metabolism. J. Trace. Elem. Med. Biol. 32: 86-106.
13. Durnin J.V. Womersley J. (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thick¬ness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br. J. Nutr. 32: 77-97.
14. Grygiel-Górniak B. Tomczak A. Krulikowska N. Przysławski J. Seraszek-Jaros A. Kaczmarek E. (2016) Physical activity nutritional status and dietary habits of students of a medical university. Sport Sci. Health 12: 261-267.
15. Guasch-Ferré M. Bulló M. Estruch R. Corella D. Mar¬tínez-González M.A. Ros E. Covas M. Arós F. Gómez-Gracia E. Fiol M. Lapetra J. Muñoz M.Á. Serra-Majem L. Babio N. Pintó X. Lamuela-Raventós R.M. Ruiz-Gutiérrez V. Salas-Salvadó J. (2014) Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. J. Nutr. 144: 55-60.
16. Holton M.L. Wang W. Emerson M. Neyses L. Armesil¬la A.L. (2010) Plasma membrane calcium ATPase pro¬teins as novel regulators of signal transduction pathways. World J. Biol. Chem. 1: 201-208.
17. Hruby A. McKeown N.M Song Y. Djoussé L. (2013) Dietary Magnesium and Genetic Interactions in Diabetes and Related Risk Factors: A Brief Overview of Current Knowledge. Nutrients. 5: 4990-5011.
18. Ilow R. Regulska-Ilow B. Różańska D. Zatońska K. Dehghan M. Zhang X. Szuba A. Vatten L. Janik-Koncewicz K. Mańczuk M. Zatoński W.A. (2011) Evaluation of mineral and vitamin intake in the diet of a sample of Polish population - baseline assessment from the prospective cohort ‘PONS’ study. Ann. Agric. Envi-ron. Med. 18: 235-240.
19. Jahnen-Dechent W. Ketteler M. (2012) Magnesium ba¬sics. Clin. Kidney. J. 5: i3-i14.
20. Jarosz M. Bułhak-Jachymczyk B. (2008) References in Human Nutrition. PZWL pp. 233-290.
21. Kardas M. Grochowska-Niedworok E. Całyniuk B. Kolasa I. Grajek M. Bielaszka A. Kiciak A. Muc-Wierzgoń M. (2016) Consumption of milk and milk products in the population of the Upper Silesian agglom¬eration inhabitants. Food Nutr. Res. 60: 28976 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v60.28976.
22. Kien C.L. Bunn J.Y. Tompkins C.L. Dumas J.A. Crain K.I. Ebenstein D.B. Koves T.R. Muoio D.M. (2013) Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for satu¬rated fat is associated with increased daily physical activ¬ity and resting energy expenditure and with changes in mood. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 97: 689-697.
23. Ko H.J. Youn C.H. Kim H.M. Cho Y.J. Lee G.H. Lee W.K. (2014) Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Nutr. Cancer. 66: 915-923.
24. Korn L. Gonen E. Shaked Y. Golan M. (2013) Health perceptions self and body image physical activity and nutrition among undergraduate students in Israel. PLoS. One 8: e58543.
25. Lake A.A. Townshend T. Alvanides S. Stamp E. Ad¬amson A.J. (2009) Diet physical activity sedentary be¬haviour and perceptions of the environment in young adults. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 22: 444-454.
26. Lewiński A. Skowrońska-Jóźwiak E.(2014) Calcium and vitamin D supply in Polish population - facts and myths. Ann. Agricult. Environ. Med. 21: 455-456.
27. Moreno-Gómez C. Romaguera-Bosch D. Tauler-Ri¬era P. Bennasar-Veny M. Pericas-Beltran J. Martinez-Andreu S. Aguilo-Pons A. (2012) Clustering of lifestyle factors in Spanish university students: the relationship between smoking alcohol consumption physical activity and diet quality. Public. Health Nutr. 15: 2131-2139.
28. Nikolaidis P.T. Theodoropoulou E. (2014) Relationship between Nutrition Knowledge and Physical Fitness in Semiprofessional Soccer Players. Scientifica (Cairo) 2014: 180353.
29. Nutrition standards for the population of the Polish - al¬teration. Available from: http://www.izz.waw.pl/attach¬ments/article/33/NormyZywieniaNowelizacjaIZZ2012.pdf.
30. Ottevaere C. Huybrechts I. Béghin L. Cuenca-Gar¬cia M. De Bourdeaudhuij I. Gottrand F. Hagströmer M. Kafatos A. Le Donne C. Moreno L.A. Sjöström M. Widhalm K. De Henauw S. (2011) Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: the HELENA study. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 8: 8.
31. Peacock M. (2010) Calcium metabolism in health and disease. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 5: S23-S30.
32. Pereira D.C. Lima R.P.A. Lima R.T. Gonçalves M.C. de Morais L.C. Franceschini Sdo C. Filizola R.G. de Moraes R.M. Asciutti L.S. Costa M.J. (2013) Associa¬tion between obesity and calcium:phosphorus ratio in the habitual diets of adults in a city of Northeastern Brazil: an epidemiological study. Nutr. J. 12: 90.
33. Raina R. Garg G. Sethi S.K. Schreiber M.J. Simon J.F. Thomas G. (2012) Phosphorus Metabolism. J. Nephrol. Therapeutic. S3: 008.
34. Romaguera D. Tauler P. Bennasar M. Pericas J. Moreno C. Martinez S. Aguilo A. (2011) Determinants and pat¬terns of physical activity practice among Spanish univer¬sity students. J. Sports Sci. 29: 989-997.
35. Rosanoff A. Dai Q. Shapses S.A. (2016) Essential Nu¬trient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status? Adv. Nutr. 7: 25-43.
36. Rosanoff A. Weaver C.M. Rude R.K. (2012) Subopti¬mal magnesium status in the United States: are the health consequences underestimated? Nutr. Rev. 70: 153-164.
37. Skowrońska-Jóźwiak E. Jaworski M. Lorenc R. Karbownik-Lewińska M. Lewiński A. (2017) Low dairy calcium intake is associated with overweight and elevated blood pressure in Polish adults notably in premenopau¬sal women. Public. Health Nutr. 20: 630-637.
38. Sleddens E.F. Kroeze W. Kohl L.F. Bolten L.M. Ve¬lema E. Kaspers P.J. Brug J. Kremers S.P. (2015) De¬terminants of dietary behavior among youth: an umbrella review. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 12: 7.
39. So-Young B. Myung-Hwa K. Eun-Jin K. Choi M.K. (2012) Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Li-pid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults. Prev. Nutr. Food. Sci. 17: 93-100.
40. Śmidowicz A. Reguła J. (2015) Dietary gender differ¬ences in terms of the risk of atherogenesis in Poland. Acta. Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment. 14: 257-267.
41. Waśkiewicz A. Szcześniewska D. Szostak-Węgierek D. Kwaśniewska M. Pająk A. Stepaniak U. Kozakie¬wicz K. Tykarski A. Zdrojewski T. Zujko M.E. Dryg¬as W. (2016) Are dietary habits of the Polish population consistent with the recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular disease? - WOBASZ II project. Kardiol. Pol. 74: 969-977.