Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine smartphone-using university students’ musculoskeletal system pain complaints, duration of smartphone and computer usage, participation in moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA), and prolonged sitting time.
Material and methods: This study was conducted on Hitit University students (n = 387; 206 female, 181 male) in the province of Çorum. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ) (sports/exercise activities section), and a personal information form prepared by the researchers were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and the t-test were used to determine differences between groups. The Pearson chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables.
Results: It was observed that half of the participants with musculoskeletal system pain complaints (54.5%) feel the pain in all four areas (neck, shoulder, upper and lower back). There was no statistically significant relationship between physical activity intensity and pain complaint (p > 0.05). The students with musculoskeletal pain complaints spend more time on the smartphone and computer than students who do not have pain complaints (p < 0.05). During electronic device usage, the students who are in the low-intensity physical activity category spend more time sitting down than students in the moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity category (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: In consequence, information can be provided about the importance of reducing sitting time during smartphone use and increasing the duration of moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) so awareness can be raised on the issue among university students.
1. AlAbdulwahab S.S., Kachanathu S.J., AlMotairi M.S. (2017) Smartphone use addiction can cause neck disability. Musculoskeletal Care,15(1): 10-12.
2. Auvinen J,. Tammelin T., Taimela S., Zitting P., Karppinen J. (2007) Neck and shoulder pains in relation to physical activity and sedentary activities in adolescence. Spine, 32(9): 1038-1044.
3. Balcı S., Ayhan B.A. (2007) survey on internet uses and gratificitions of university schools. J. Selçuk Commun., 5(1): 174-197.
4. Berolo S., Wells R.P., Amick B.C. (2011) Musculoskeletal symptoms among mobile hand-held device users and their relationship to device use: A preliminary study in a Canadian University Population. Appl. Ergon., 42(2): 371-378.
5. Caglar E., Bilgili N., Karaca A., Deliceoglu G. (2017) Screen time differences among Turkish university students as indicator for sedentary lifestyle and inactivity. Croat. J. Educ., 19(4): 1105-1130.
6. Cakır F., Demir B.N. (2014) A Study on determining preferences of university students’ purchasing smartphone. Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 29(1): 213-243.
7. Chau J.Y., Daley M., Dunn S., Srinivasan A., Do A., Bauman A.E., van der Ploeg H.P. (2014) The effectiveness of sit-stand workstations for changing office workers’ sitting time: results from the Stand@Work randomized controlled trial pilot. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act.,11: 127. DOI: 10.1186/s12966-014-0127-7.
8. Craig C.L., Marshall A.L., Sjöström M., Bauman A.E., Booth M.L., Ainsworth B.E., Pratt M., Ekelund U., Yngve A., Sallis J.F., Oja P. (2003) International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 35(8): 1381-1395.
9. Guan X., Fan G., Chen Z., Zeng Y., Zhang H., Hu A., Gu G., Wu X., Gu X., He S. (2016) Gender difference in mobile phone use and the impact of digital device exposure on neck posture. Ergonomics, 59(11): 1453-1461.
10. Hakala P.T., Rimpelä A.H., Saarni L.A., Salminen J.J. (2006) Frequent computer-related activities increase the risk of neck-shoulder and low back pain in adolescents. Eur. J. Public Health, 16(5): 536-541.
11. Hakala P.T., Saarni L., Ketola R., Rahkola E.T., Salminen J.J., Rimpelä A.H. (2010) Computer-associated health complaints and sources of ergonomic instructions in computer-related issues among Finnish adolescents: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 10: 11. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-11.
12. Hakala P.T., Saarni L.A., Punamäki R.L., Wallenius M.A., Nygård C.H., Rimpelä A.H. (2012) Musculoskeletal symptoms and computer use among Finnish adolescents-pain intensity and inconvenience to everyday life: A cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders,13(1): 41.
13. Haskell W.L., Lee I.M., Pate R.R., Powell K.E., Blair S.N., Franklin B.A., Macera C.A., Heath G.W., Thompson P.D., Bauman A. (2007) Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 39(8): 1423-1434.
14. Holth H.S., Werpen H.K.B., Zwart J.A., Hagen K. (2008) Physical inactivity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal complaints 11 years later: results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders., 9(1): 159.
15. Iannotti R.J., Kogan M.D., Janssen I., Boyce W.F. (2009) Patterns of adolescent physical activity, screen-based media use, and positive and negative health indicators in the US and Canada. J. Adolesc. Health, 44(5): 493-499.
16. Jenkins M., Menéndez C.C., Amick B.C., Tullar J., Hupert N., Robertson M.M., Katz J.N. (2007) Undergraduate college students’ upper extremity symptoms and functional limitations related to computer use: a replication study. Work, 28(3): 231-238.
17. Karaarslan I.A., Budak L. (2012) Research on the use of mobile phone features by university students and its impact on their communication practices in everyday life. Journal of Yasar University, 26(7): 4548-4571.
18. Karaca A., Ergen E., Koruç Z. (2000) The reliability of and the validity of the physical activity assessment questionnarie (PAAQ). Hacettepe J. Sport Sci., 11(1): 17-28.
19. Kelly G., Dockrell S., Galvin R. (2009) Computer use at school: its effect on posture in discomfort in schoolchildren. Work, 32: 321-328.
20. Kızar O., Kargün M., Togo O.T., Biner M., Pala A. (2016) The Examining of The Physical Activity Level of The University Students. Marmara University J. Sport Sci., 1(1): 61-72.
21. Kim G.Y., Ahn C.S., Jeon H.W. (2012) Effects of the use of smartphones on pain and muscle fatigue in the upper extremity. J. Phys. Ther. Sci., 24(12): 1255-1258.
22. Kim H.J., Kim J.S. (2015) The relationship between smartphone use and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms and university students. J. Phys. Ther. Sci., 27(3): 575-579.
23. Kuyucu M. (2017) Use of smartphone and problematic of smart phone addiction in young people: “smart phone (Colic)” University Youth. Global Media Journal TR Edition, 7(14): 328-359.
24. Milde-Busch A., von Kries R., Thomas S., Heinrich S., Straube A., Radon K. (2010) The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study. BMC Neurol., 10: 12. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-12.
25. Myrtveit S.M., Sivertsen B., Skogen J.C., Frostholm L., Stormark K.M., Hysing M. (2014) Adolescent neck and shoulder pain - the association with depression, physical activity, screen-based activities, and use of health care services. J. Adolesc. Health, 55(3): 366-372.
26. Noack-Cooper K.L., Sommerich C.M., Mirka G.A. (2009) College students and computers: Assessment of usage patterns and musculoskeletal discomfort. Work, 32(3): 285-298.
27. Noyan C.O., Enez Darcın A., Nurmedov S., Yılmaz S., Dilbaz N. (2015) Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the smartphone addiction scale-short version among university students. Anatolian J. Psychiatry, 16: 73-81.
28. Olcucu B., Vatansever S., Ozcan G., Celik A., Paktaş Y. (2015) The relationship between depression, anxiety and physical activity level among university students. Int. J. Turkish Educ. Sci., 294-303.
29. Ozkocak Y. (2016) Turkish smartphone users’ mobile application preferences for recreation. Global Media Journal TR Edition, 6(12): 106-130.
30. Ozturk M. (2005) A research on reliability and validity of international physical activity questionnaire and determination of physical activity level in university students. Hacettepe University Institute of Health Sciences Nutritional Sciences Program. MSc Thesis. Ankara: Hacettepe University.
31. Park N., Lee H. (2012) Social implications of smartphone use: Korean college students’ smartphone use and psychological well-being. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw., 15(9): 491-497. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0580.
32. Park J., Kim J., Kim J., Kim K., Kim N., Choi I., Lee S., Yim J. (2015) The effects of heavy smartphone use on the cervical angle, pain threshold of neck muscles and depression. Adv. Sci. Technol. Lett., 91: 12-17.
33. Pew Research Center. (2016) Smartphone ownership and internet usage continues to climb in emerging economies. www.pewresearch.org. (accessed 25.02.2018).
34. Savcı S., Oztürk M., Arıkan H., İnal D., Tokgozoglu L. (2006) Physical activity levels of university students. Arch. Turk. Soc. Cardiol., 34(3): 166-172.
35. Shan Z., Deng G., Li J., Li Y., Zhang Y. (2013) Correlation analysis of neck/shoulder pain and low back pain with the use of digital products, physical activity and psychological status among adolescents in Shanghai. PLos One, 8(10): 78-109.
36. Silva G.R., Pitangui A.C., Xavier M.K., Correia-Júnior M.A., De Araújo R.C. (2016) Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents and association with computer and videogame use. J. Pediatr. (Rio J)., 92(2): 188-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.jped.2015.06.006.
37. Szerla M., Ortenburger D., Kluszczyński M., Wyszomierska J. (2017) Exercise and psychological factors in low back pain. Physical Activity Review., 5: 6-9.
38. Todd A.I., Bennett A.I., Christie C.J. (2007) Physical implications of prolonged sitting in a confined posture-a literature review. Ergonomics SA: Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa, 19(2): 7-21.
39. Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) (2015). TurkStat, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Usage Survey in Households and Individuals, 2015 [Hanehalkı Bilişim Teknolojileri Kullanım Araştırması, 2015]. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=18660 (accessed 23.8.2018).
40. Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) (2016a). Turkey Health Interview Survey 2016 [Türkiye Sağlık Araştırması. 2016]. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1095 (accessed 25.02.2018).
41. Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) (2016b). TurkStat, Survey on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Usage Survey in Households and by Individuals, 2016 [Hanehalkı bilişim teknolojileri kullanımaraştırması 2016]. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=21779 (accessed 22.8.2018).
42. Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat). Individuals using the computer and Internet in the last 3 months by age groups and sex, 2004-2018. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Usage in Households and by Individuals. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1028 (accessed 10.08.2018). 43. Vassigh G. (2012) Evaluation of physical activity level sand healthy nutritional index of university students. Hacettepe University Institute of Health Sciences Nutritional Sciences Program. MSc Thesis. Ankara: Hacettepe University.
44. World Health Organization (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva; Switzerland.
45. Xie Y., Szeto G.P., Dai J., Madeleine P.A. (2016) Comparison of muscle activity in using touchscreen smartphone among young people with and without chronic neck-shoulder pain. Ergonomics, 59(1): 61-72.
46. Yagcı N., Calık B.B. (2014) Investigation of effect of using desktop computers on neck pain in university students. J. Occup. Ther. Rehabil., 2(2): 65-72.
47. Yılmazsoy B., Kahraman M. (2017) Addiction to social media and usage of the social media for educational purposes: the facebook example [Üniversite öğrencilerinin sosyal medya bağımlılığı ile sosyal medyayı eğitsel amaçlı kullanımları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi: Facebook örneği]. Journal of Instructional Technologies & Teacher Education., 6(1): 9-20.
48. Zapata A.L., Moraes A.J., Leone C., Doria-Filho U., Silva C.A. (2006) Pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes related to computer and video game use in adolescents. Eur, J, Pediatr., 165(6): 408-414.