Mechanism of Electrical Conductivity in Metallic Fiber-Based Yarns

Open access


We explore the conductive mechanism of yarns made from metallic fibers and/or traditional textile fibers. It has been proposed for the first time, to our knowledge, that probe span length plays a great role in the conductivity of metallic fiber-based yarns, which is determined by the probability and number of conductive fibers appearing on a cross section and their connecting on two neighboring sections in a yarn’s longitudinal direction. The results demonstrate that yarn conductivity is negatively influenced to a large extent by its length when metallic fibers are blended with other nonconductive materials, which is beyond the scope of conductivity theory for metal conductors. In addition, wicking and wetting performances, which interfere with fiber distribution and conductive paths between fibers, have been shown to have a negative influence on the conductivity of metallic fiber-based yarns with various structures and composed of different fiber materials. Such dependence of the conductivity on the probe span length, as well as on the moisture from air and human body, should get attention during investigation of the conductivity of metallic fiber-based composites in use, especially in cases in which conductive yarns are fabricated into flexible circuit boards, antennas, textile electrodes, and sensors.

[1] Zeng, W., Shu, L., Li, Q., Chen, S., Wang, F., Tao, X. M. (2014). Fiber-based wearable electronics: a review of materials, fabrication, devices, and applications. Advanced Materials, 26, 5310-5336.

[2] Yamada, T., Hayamizu, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Yomogida, Y., Izadi-Najafabadi, A., Futaba, D. N., et al. (2011). A stretchable carbon nanotube strain sensor for human-motion detection. Nature Nanotechnology, 6, 296-301.

[3] Park, M., Im, J., Shin, M., Min, Y., Park, J., et al. (2012). Highly stretchable electric circuits from a composite material of silver nanoparticles and elastomeric fibres. Nature Nanotechnology, 7, 7.

[4] Cheng, K. B., Ramakrishna, S., Lee, K. C. (2000). Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of copper glass fiber knitted fabric reinforced polypropylene composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 31, 1039-1045.

[5] Koski, K., Vena, A., Sydänheimo, L. (2013). Design and implementation of electro-textile ground planes for wearable UHF RFID patch tag antennas. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 12, 4.

[6] Liu, N., Ma, W., Tao, J., Zhang, X., Su, J., Li, L., et al. (2013). Cable-type supercapacitors of three-dimensional cotton thread based multi-grade nanostructures for wearable energy storage. Advanced Materials, 25, 4925-4931.

[7] Maaroufi, A. (2004). Electrical resistivity of polymeric matrix loaded with nickel and cobalt powders. Journal of Materials Science, 39, 265–270.

[8] Šafářová, V., Militký, J. (2012). A study of electrical conductivity of hybrid yarns containing metal fibers. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering B, 2, 197-202.

[9] Li, X., Hua, T., Xu, B. (2017). Electromechanical properties of a yarn strain sensor with graphene-sheath/polyurethane-core. Carbon, 118, 686-698.

[10] Mutiso, R. M., Winey, K. I. (2015). Electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites containing rod-like nanofillers. Progress in Polymer Science, 40, 63-84.

[11] Zhang, D., Zhang, Y., Miao, M. (2014). Metallic conductivity transition of carbon nanotube yarns coated with silver particles. Nanotechnology, 25, 275702.

[12] Schwarz, A., Cuny, L., Hertleer, C., Ghekiere, F., Kazani, I., et al. (2011). Electrical circuit model of elastic and conductive yarns produced by hollow spindle spinning. Materials Technology, 26, 121-127.

[13] Xie, J., Long, H., Miao, M. (2016). High sensitivity knitted fabric strain sensors. Smart Materials and Structures, 25, 105008.

[14] Allison, L., Hoxie, S., Andrew, T. L. (2017). Towards seamlessly-integrated textile electronics: methods to coat fabrics and fibers with conducting polymers for electronic applications. Chem Commun (Camb), 53, 7182-7193.

[15] Motaghi, A., Hrymak, A., Motlagh, G. H. (2015). Electrical conductivity and percolation threshold of hybrid carbon/polymer composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132.

[16] Cai, W.-Z., Tu, S.-T., Gong, J.-M. (2006). A physically based percolation model of the effective electrical conductivity of particle filled composites. Journal of Composite Materials, 40, 2131-2142.

[17] Behnam, A., Guo, J., Ural, A. (2007). Effects of nanotube alignment and measurement direction on percolation resistivity in single-walled carbon nanotube films. Journal of Applied Physics, 102, 044313.

[18] White, S. I., Mutiso, R. M., Vora, P. M., Jahnke, D., Hsu, S., et al. (2010). Electrical percolation behavior in silver nanowire-polystyrene composites: simulation and experiment. Advanced Functional Materials, 20, 2709-2716.

[19] Kyrylyuk, A. V., Hermant, M. C., Schilling, T., Klumperman, B., Koning, C. E., et al. (2011). Controlling electrical percolation in multicomponent carbon nanotube dispersions. Nature Nanotechnology, 6, 364-369.

[20] Otten, R. H., van der Schoot, P. (2011). Connectivity percolation of polydisperse anisotropic nanofillers. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 134, 094902.

[21] Xie, J., Gordon, S., Long, H., Miao, M. (2015). Electrical percolation of fibre mixtures. Applied Physics A, 121, 589-595.

[22] Holcombe, B. (2008). Wool performance apparel for sport. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge.

[23] Francis W. Minor, Anthony M. Schwartz, E.A. Wulkow & Buckles, L. C. (1959) The Migration of Liquids in Textile Assemblies, Part II: The Wicking of Liquids in Yams, Textile Research Journal. 29, 10.

Autex Research Journal

The Journal of Association of Universities for Textiles (AUTEX)

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.957
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.027

CiteScore 2017: 1.18

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.448
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.465


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 77 77 61
PDF Downloads 30 30 16