Development of fortified bakery products based on kokoro, a traditional Nigerian snack

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Variants of kokoro snack samples were produced by fortification of maize flour-Fibersol 2-whey protein blends at 1% each with functional ingredients (ginger, fenugreek, turmeric, spirulina, red paprika) and a final blend containing all the functional ingredients at 1% level each. The resultant kokoro snack samples produced were evaluated for proximate composition and sensory qualities. The results of proximate analysis showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference in moisture, protein, ash content, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate content, and energy values in all the blends of the kokoro snack sample and ranged from 51.20% to 36.80%, from 4.46% to 3.85%, from 1.15% to 0.98%, from 0.13% to 0.00%, from 4.93% to 3.94%, from 53.57% to 39.2, and from 232.30 kcal/100 g to 172.99 kcal/100 g respectively. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) difference in the sensory attributes of all kokoro samples in terms of appearance, aroma, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The kokoro snack blend R 97:1:1:1 (Maize: Fibersol 2: Whey protein: Red paprika) was most preferred by the panellists, having the highest mean sensory score of 8.97. The results of the evaluation of the kokoro snack samples showed that an acceptable fortified bakery product based on kokoro can be produced by the addition of maize flour-Fibersol 2-whey protein blends to red paprika and ginger at 1% level of fortification. This will further encourage the cultivation and utilization of these spices in food formulation and hence provide health-promoting benefits to target consumers.

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Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria

The Journal of Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania

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