Urban shrinkage is among of the most dangerous current risks for the preservation of liveability (e.g. residential function) in formerly prosperous historical residential and industrial districts. The planning for shrinkage emerged only in the 21st century in order to manage and prevent growing urban decay, depopulation and housing crisis through the application of smart structural adjustment policies and planning instruments for formerly heavily industrialised North American and Asian cities. Both shrinkage and liveability planning are still very “fuzzy” concepts and have been applied in ways that are not always consistent (e.g. for measuring decline, migration, demographics). However, remains the question of what (methods or approaches) would prevent (control) this well-known but evidently “wicked” and still less explored phenomenon of “loss of liveability” in a historical built environment. This paper aims to review the urban shrinkage and liveability problematic and prevention solutions (methods) based on studies of theory and practice of urban planning.
2. Hollander, J. B., Pallagst, K., Schwarz, T., Popper, F. J. Planning Shrinking Cities [online]. SSRN Scholarly Paper [cited 02.01.2019.]. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, 2009. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1616130
3. Pallagst, K. Shrinking cities: planning challenges from an international perspective. Cities Growing Smaller. Kent State University’s Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative, 2008. pp. 6–16.
10. Delvac, W. F., Escherich, S., Hartman, B.Affordable housing through historic preservation: a case study guide to combining the tax credits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cultural Resources, Preservation Assistance: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1994, 74 p. ISBN 978-0-16-045258-1.
11. Rhule, J. Richard Florida, the Creative Class and Gentrification [online]. The Shifting Human City: Essay Series on Current and Future Policy
13. Robbins, J. A Short History of Urban Planning. Drawn from: Richard LeGates and Frederic Stout, “Modernism and Early Urban Planning”; Paul Knox, “Urbanization”; Barry Cullingworth, “Planning in the USA.” [online]. SlidePlayer [cited 02.01.2019.]. https://slideplayer.com/slide/11249140/
14. Haines, A., Walbrun, K., Kemp, S., Roffers, M.Land use resource guide: a guide to preparing the land use element of a local comprehensive plan. University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point/Extension, Center for Land Use Education, 2005, 124 p.
17. Houghton, L., Tuffley, D. Towards a Methodology of Wicked Problem Exploration through Concept Shifting and Tension Point Analysis. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2015, pp. 283–297. https://doi.org/10.1002/sres.2223
18. Hollander, J. B., Cahill, B. Confronting Population Decline in the Buffalo, New York, Region: A Close Reading of the “Erie-Niagara Framework for Regional Growth.” Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2011, pp. 252–267.
23. Martinez-Fernandez, C., Weyman, T., Fol, S. et. al. Shrinking cities in Australia, Japan, Europe and the USA: From a global process to local policy responses. Progress in Planning, Vol. 105, 2016, pp. 1–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progress.2014.10.001
28. Vicenzotti, V., Qviström, M. Zwischenstadt as a travelling concept: towards a critical discussion of mobile ideas in transnational planning discourses on urban sprawl. European Planning Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2018, pp. 115–132. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2017.1375082
29. Zellner, M., Campbell, S. D. Planning for deep-rooted problems: What can we learn from aligning complex systems and wicked problems? Planning Theory & Practice. Vol. 16, No. 4, 2015, pp. 457–478. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2015.1084360
37. Houghton, L., Tuffley, D. Towards a Methodology of Wicked Problem Exploration through Concept Shifting and Tension Point Analysis: Concept Shifting and Tension Point Analysis. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2015, pp. 283–297. https://doi.org/10.1002/sres.2223
43. Haase, D. Shrinking Cities, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services [online]. Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities [cited 02.01.2019.]. Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands, 2013. pp. 253–274. ISBN 978-94-007-7087-4. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1_12
45. Kauko, T. Sustainable Development of the Built Environment: The Role of the Residential/Housing Sector. Sustainable Development - Education, Business and Management - Architecture and Building Construction - Agriculture and Food Security. 2012, pp. 161–174. https://doi.org/10.5772/27873