Prevalence of infections with Clostridium difficile on potential pathology groups

Open access

Abstract

Enterotoxins produced by Clostridium difficile cause a series of biochemical and immunological manifestations in the cascade leading to alteration of the enterocitus cytoskeleton, intestinal inflammation and diarrhea that can greatly impair the patient’s biological status. The genome of the Clostridium difficile bacterium shows a series of evolutionary adaptations that can give it a high degree of resistance or adaptability to many known pharmacological classes. Changing the diversity of intestinal microbiota induced by the use of antibiotics creates a favorable environment from all points of view for Clostridium difficile spore activity. The theme addresses in an original way but related to the epidemiological studies presented in the literature a correlative aspect between the pathological group and the infection with Clostridium difficile. From the data presented, there is a direct correlation between Clostridium difficile infection and the use of antibiotic therapy as a curative or preventive treatment. Gastrointestinal and neurological pathologies, due to the use of curative but also preventive antibiotic therapy, are at increased risk for the installation of Clostridium difficile infection. The study presented may be a first step in raising awareness of the rational use of antibiotics and avoiding non-assisted community antibiotic therapy.

[1]. P.H.V. Saavedra, L. Huang. F. Ghazavi, S. Kourula, T.V. Berghe, N. Takahashi, P. Vandenabeele, L. Mohamed, Apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells restricts Clostridium difficile infection in a model of pseudomembranous colitis, Nature Communications 9 (2018) 4846. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07386-5

[2]. S.A. Kuehne, S.T. Cartman, J.T. Heap, M.L. Kelly, A. Cockayne, N.P. Minton, The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection, Nature 467 (2010) 711–713. DOI: 10.1038/nature09397

[3]. D. Lyras, J.R. O’Connor, P.M. Howarth, S.P. Sambol, G.P. Carter, T. Phumoonna, R. Poon, V. Adams, G. Vedantam, S. Johnson, D.N. Gerding, J.I. Rood, Toxin B is essential for virulence of Clostridium difficile, Nature 458 (2009) 1176–1179. DOI: 10.1038/nature07822

[4]. W.K. Smits, D. Lyras, D.B. Lacy, M.H. Wilcox, E.J. Kuijper, Clostridium difficile infection, Nature Reviews Disease Primers 2 (2016) 16020. DOI: 10.1038/nrdp.2016.20

[5]. J. Freeman, F.J. O’Neill, M.H. Wilcox, Effects of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime upon Clostridium difficile proliferation and toxin production in a triple-stage chemostat model of the human gut, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 52 (2003) 96-102. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkg267

[6]. A.N. Ananthakrishnan, Clostridium difficile infection: epidemiology, risk factors and management, Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 8 (2011) 17-26. DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2010.190

[7]. M. Kachrimanidou, N. Malisiovas, Clostridium difficile infection: a comprehensive review, Critical Reviews in Microbiology 37 (2011) 178-87. DOI: 10.3109/1040841X.2011.556598

[8]. A.M. Jarrad, T. Karoli, A. Debnath, C.Y. Tay, J.X. Huang, G. Kaeslin, A.G. Elliott, Y. Miyamoto, S. Ramu, A.M. Kavanagh, J. Zuegg, L. Eckmann, M.A. Blaskovich, M.A. Cooper, Metronidazole-triazole conjugates: activity against Clostridium difficile and parasites, European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 101 (2015) 96-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.06.019

[9]. K.Z. Vardakas, K.A. Polyzos, K. Patouni, P.I. Rafailidis, G. Samonis, M.E. Falagas, Treatment failure and recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection following treatment with vancomycin or metronidazole: a systematic review of the evidence, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 40 (2012) 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2012.01.004

[10]. I.R. Poxton, Fidaxomicin: a new macrocyclic, RNA polymerase-inhibiting antibiotic for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections, Future Microbiology 5 (2010) 539-48. DOI: 10.2217/fmb.10.20.

[11]. F. Chaparro-Rojas, K.M. Mullane, Emerging therapies for Clostridium difficile infection - focus on fidaxomicin, Infection and Drug Resistance 6 (2013) 41-53. DOI: 10.2147/IDR.S24434

[12]. E.C. Oldfield IV, E.C. Oldfield III, D.A. Johnson, Clinical update for the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics 5 (2014) 1-26. DOI: 10.4292/wjgpt.v5.i1.1

[13]. D.M. Musher, N. Logan, A.M. Bressler, D.P. Johnson, J.F. Rossignol, Nitazoxanide versus vancomycin in Clostridium difficile infection: a randomized, double-blind study, Clinical Infectious Diseases 48 (2009) 41-6. DOI: 10.1086/596552

[14]. K.M. Land, P.J. Johnson, Molecular basis of metronidazole resistance in pathogenic bacteria and protozoa, Drug Resistance Updates 2 (1999) 289-294. DOI: 10.1054/drup.1999.0104

[15]. S. Lofmark, C. Edlund, C.E. Nord, Metronidazole is still the drug of choice for treatment of anaerobic infections, Clinical Infectious Diseases 50 (2010) S16-23. DOI: 10.1086/647939

[16]. A. Kuriyama, J.L. Jackson, A. Doi, T. Kamiya, Metronidazole-induced central nervous system toxicity: A systematic review. Clinical Neuropharmacology 34 (2011) 241–247. DOI: 10.1097/WNF.0b013e3182334b35.

[17]. S. Maa, A. Otto, D. Albrecht, K. Riedel, A. Trautwein-Schult, D. Becher, Proteomic signatures of Clostridium difficile stressed with metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin, Cells 7 (2018) 213. DOI: 10.3390/cells7110213

[18]. C.M. Surawicz, L.J. Brandt, D.G. Binion, A.N. Ananthakrishnan, S.R. Curry, P.H. Gilligan, L.V. McFarland, M. Mellow, B.S. Zuckerbraun, Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections, American Journal of Gastroenterology 108 (2013) 478-498. DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2013.4

[19]. T.G. Gweon, K.J. Lee, D.H. Kang, S.S. Park, K.H. Kim, H.J. Seong, T.H. Ban, S.J. Moon, J.S. Kim, S.W. Kim, A case of toxic megacolon caused by Clostridium difficile infection and treated with fecal microbiota transplantation, Gut and Liver 9 (2015) 247-250. DOI: 10.5009/gnl14152

[20]. J.Y. Chang, D.A. Antonopoulos, A. Kalra, A. Tonelli, W.T. Khalife, T.M. Schmidt, V.B. Young, Decreased diversity of the fecal microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, The Journal of Infectious Diseases 197 (2008) 435-438. DOI: 10.1086/525047

Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry

Analele Universitatii "Ovidius" Constanta - Seria Chimie

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 78 78 26
PDF Downloads 62 62 15