Genome scan, linkage and association studies have identified CMH genes in the genetic determinism of most autoimmune diseases, affecting approximately 5% of the population. The susceptibility conferred by HLA alleles does not influence the development of autoimmunity in general, but rather the probability of some disorders. From extremely high number of known HLA alleles, less than 30 are associated with diseases, and fewer than 10 are involved in the strongest associations. The aim of this study was to determine HLA genes in autoimmune diseases. The method used for the assignment of HLA alleles was molecular genotyping, primarily by the sequence specific oligonucleotide hybridization method (SSO), and when required, by the sequence specific primers method (SSP). Molecular genotyping was performed in 282 cases of diabetes mellitus type 1, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves’ disease and ankylosing spondylitis. HLA typing in patients with autoimmune diseases is important for determining prognosis and genetic counseling. In ankylosing spondylitis HLA typing is used for differential diagnosis. In such studies it’s important to be aware that there is a particular HLA gene expression depending on the geographic area.
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