Effect of nanofluid concentration on two-phase thermosyphon heat exchanger performance

Open access


An approach - relaying on application of nanofluid as a working fluid, to improve performance of the two-phase thermosyphon heat exchanger (TPTHEx) has been proposed. The prototype heat exchanger consists of two horizontal cylindrical vessels connected by two risers and a downcomer. Tube bundles placed in the lower and upper cylinders work as an evaporator and a condenser, respectively. Distilled water and nanofluid water-Al2O3 solution were used as working fluids. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.01% and 0.1% by weight. A modified Peclet equation and Wilson method were used to estimate the overall heat transfer coefficient of the tested TPTHEx. The obtained results indicate better performance of the TPTHEx with nanofluids as working fluid compared to distilled water, independent of nanoparticle concentration tested. However, increase in nanoparticle concentration results in overall heat transfer coefficient decrease of the TPTHEx examined. It has been observed that, independent of nanoparticle concentration tested, decrease in operating pressure results in evaporation heat transfer coefficient increase.

[1] Pioro L.S., Pioro I.L.: Industrial Two-Phase Thermosyphons. Begell House Inc. New York, Wallingford 1997.

[2] Gavotti N., Polašek F.: Thermal control of electronic components by means of two-phase thermosyphons. In: Proc. Eurotherm Sem. Genoa 1999, No. 6, Single and Two-Phase Natural Circulation, 229-238.

[3] Bieliński H., Mikielewicz J.: Application of a two-phase thermosyphon loop with minichannels and a minipump in computer cooling. Arch. Thermodyn. 37(2016), 1, 3-16.

[4] Zhang M., Liu Z., Ma G.: The experimental investigation on thermal performance of a flat two-phase thermosiphon. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47(2008), 1195-1203.

[5] Khodabandeh R., Furberg R.: Heat transfer, flow regime and instability of a nano- and micro-porous structure evaporator in a two-phase thermosyphon loop. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 49(2010), 1183-1192.

[6] He J., Lin G., Bai L., Miao J., Zhang H., Wang L.: Effect of non-condensable gas on steady-state operation of a loop thermosyphon. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 81(2014), 59-67.

[7] Kafeel K., Turan A.: Simulation of the response of a thermosyphon under pulsed heat input conditions. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 80(2014), 33-40.

[8] Choi S.: Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. Developments and applications of non-Newtonian flows. ASME, FED-Vol. 231/MD 66(1995), 99-105.

[9] Pantzali M.N., Mouza A.A., Paras S.V.: Investigating the efficacy of nanofluids as coolants in plate heat exchanger (PHE). Chem. Eng. Sci. 64(2009), 3290-3300.

[10] Murshed S.M.S., Nieto De Castro C.A., Lourenc M.J.V., Lopes M.L.L., Santos F.J.V.: A review of boiling and convective heat transfer with nanofluids. Renew. Sustainable Energ. Rev. 15(2011) 2342-2354.

[11] Huminic G., Huminic A.: Heat transfer characteristics of a two-phase closed thermosyphons using nanofluids. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 35(2011), 550-557.

[12] Yang X.F., Liu Z.H.: Application of functionalized nanofluid in thermosiphon. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(2011), 494 (1-12); http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/494

[13] Xue H.S., Fan J.R., Hu Y.C., Hong R.H., Cen K.F.: The interface effect of carbon nanotube suspension on the thermal performance of a two-phase closed thermosiphon. J. Appl. Phys. 100(2006), 104909.

[14] Mehta B., Khandekar S.: Two-phase closed thermosyphon with nanofluids. In: Proc. 14th Int. Heat Pipe Conf., Florianopolis 2007, 22-27.

[15] Khandekar S., Joshi Y.M., Mehta B.: Thermal performance of closed two-phase thermosyphon using nanofluids. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47(2008), 659-667.

[16] Noie S.H., Zeinali Heris S., Kahani M., Nowee S.M.: Heat transfer enhancement using Al2O3/water nanofluid in a two-phase closed thermosyphon. Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 30(2009), 700-705.

[17] Liu Z.H., Yang X.F., Wang G.S., Guo G.I.: Influence of carbon nanotube suspension on the thermal performance of a miniature thermosiphon. Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 53(2010), 1914-1920.

[18] Parametthanuwat T., Rittidech S., Pattiya A.: A correlation to predict heattransfer rates of a two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) using silver nanofluid at normal operating conditions. Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 53(2010), 4960-4965.

[19] Paramatthanuwat T., Boothaisong S., Rittidech S., Booddachan K.: Heat transfer characteristics of a two-phase closed thermosyphon using deionized water mixed with silver nano. Heat Mass Tran. 46(2010), 281-285; doi 10.1007/s00231-009-0565-y

[20] Huminic G., Huminic A., Morjan I., Dumitrache F.: Experimental study of the thermal performance of thermosyphon heat pipe using iron oxide nanoparticles. Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 54(2011), 656-661.

[21] Firouzfar E., Soltanieh M., Noie S.H., Saidi S.H.: Energy saving in HVAC systems using nanofluid. Appl. Therm. Eng. 31(2011), 1543-1545.

[22] Buschmann M.H.: Nanofluids in thermosyphons and heat pipes: Overview of recent experiments and model ling approaches. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 72(2013), 1-17.

[23] Cieśliński J.T., Fiuk A.: Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger. Polish Patent PL 192757, 2006.

[24] Cieśliński J.T., Fiuk A.: Heat transfer characteristics of a two-phase thermosyphon. Appl. Therm. Eng. 51(2013), 112-118.

[25] Wilson E.E.: A basis for rational design of heat transfer apparatus. Trans. ASME 37(1915), 47-82.

[26] Briggs D.E., Young E.H.: Modified Wilson plot techniques for obtaining heat transfer correlations for shell and tube heat exchangers. AIChE Symp. Ser. 65(1969), 35-45.

[27] Shah R.K.: Assessment of modified Wilson plot techniques for obtaining heat exchanger design data. In: Proc. 9th Int. Heat Transfer Conf., Jerusalem 1990, 5(1990), 51-56.

[28] Fernandez-Seara J., Uhia F.J., Sieres J., Campo A.: A general review of the Wilson plot method and its modifications to determine convection coefficients in heat exchange devices. Appl. Therm. Eng. 27(2007), 2745-2757.

[29] Shokouhmand H., Salimpour M.R., Akhavan-Behabadi M.A.: Experimental investigation of shel l and coiled tube heat exchangers using Wilson plots. Int. Comm. Heat Mass Tran. 35(2008), 84-92.

[30] van Rooyen E., Cristians M., Thome J.R.: Modified Wilson plots for enhanced heat transfer experiments: Current status and future perspectives. Heat Tran. Eng. 33(2012), 342-355, doi:10.1080/01457632.2012.611767

[31] Mikielewicz D., Wajs J., Mikielewicz J.: Determination of heat transfer coefficient in evaporator of the ORC using the Wilson method. In: Proc. XVII Int. Conf. Heat Transfer and Renewable Sources of Energy, Szczecin-Międzyzdroje 2008, 489-496.

[32] Cieśliński J.T., Rubalewski J.: Determination of the overal l heat transfer coefficient for the two-phase thermosyphon heat exchanger. Technika Chłodnicza i Klimatyzacyjna 195(2012), 5, 206-211 (in Polish).

[33] Cooper M.G.: Heat flow in saturated nucleate pool boiling - A wide-ranging examination using reduced properties. Adv. Heat Tran. 16(1984), 157-239.

[34] Cieśliński J.T., Kaczmarczyk T.Z.: Pool boiling of water-Al2O3 and water- Cu nanofluids on horizontal smooth tubes. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(2011), 220(1-9), doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-220 - ISSN 1556-276X

[35] Cieśliński J.T., Kaczmarczyk T.Z.: Pool boiling of nanofluids on rough and porous coated tubes: Experiment and correlation. Arch. Thermodyn. 35(2014), 2, 3-20.

[36] Incropera F.P., Bergman T.L., Lavine A.S.: Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 6th Edn., Wiley & Sons, 2010.

[37] Cieśliński J.T., Kaczmarczyk T.Z.: The effect of pressure on heat transfer during pool boiling of water-Al2O3 and water-Cu nanofluids on stainless steel smooth tube. Chem. Process Eng. 32(2011), 4, 321-332.

Archives of Thermodynamics

The Journal of Committee on Thermodynamics and Combustion of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.54

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.319
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.598

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 198 198 16
PDF Downloads 80 80 10