The structural characterization and function of the stomach in the omnivore Pygocentrus nattereri were described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The sac-like stomach was morphologically divided into the cardiac and pyloric regions. The histological structure of the stomach consisted of four layers of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The superficial epithelium of the cardiac stomach was lined with columnar epithelial cells and the glandular epithelium contained numerous gastric glands. Gastric glands were completely absent in the pyloric portion. The mucosal surface of the stomach was a meshwork of various folds, provided with oval or rounded columnar epithelial cells which were densely packed with short, stubby microvilli. The occasional presence of conspicuous gastric pits was surrounded by epithelial cells. The localization and chemical nature of acid and neutral mucins in the various cells of the stomach was studied by employing combined the Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) technique. The deposition of glycogen was detected in the gastric glands as well as in the epithelial lining of the stomach. The utmost reactions for protein and tryptophan were recorded in the gastric glands of mucosa. The cellular organization and histochemical characterization of the stomach are discussed in relation to the feeding and digestion of the fish concerned.
Adams C.W.M. 1957 - A p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde nitrate method for the histochemical demonstration of tryptophan and related compounds - J. Clin. Pathol. 10: 56-62.
Anderson T.A. 1986 - Histological and cytological structure of the gastrointestinal tract of the luderick, Girella tricuspidata (Pisces, Kyphosidae) in relation to diet - J. Morphol. 190: 109-119.
Anwar I.M., Mahmoud B.I. 1975 - Histological and histochemical studies on the intestine of the Egyptian lizards, Mabuya quinqetaeniata and Chalcides ocellatus - Bull. Fac. Sci. 4: 101-108.
Arellano J.M., Storch V., Sarasquete C. 2001 - Histological and histochemical observations in the stomach of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis - Histol. Histopathol. 16: 511-521.
Ba-Omar T.A., Victor R., Tobias D.B. 1998 - Histology of the stomach of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1828), a cyprinodont fish, with emphasis on changes caused by stress from starvation - Trop. Zool. 11: 11-17.
Best F. 1906 - Uber carmine far bug des glycogens and derkerne - Z. Wiss. Mikr. 3: 319-322.
Cao J.X., Wang W.M. 2009 - Histology and mucin histochemistry of the digestive tract of yellow catfish Petteobagrus fulvidraco - Anat. Histol. Embryol. 38: 254-261.
Carrasson M., Grau A., Dopazo L.R., Crespo S. 2006 - A histological, histochemical and ultrastructural study of the digestive tract of Dentex dentex (Pisces, Sparidae) - Histol. Histopathol. 21: 579-593.
Chakrabarti P., Ghosh S.K. 2014 - A comparative study of the histology and microanatomy of the stomach in Mystus vittatus (Bloch), Liza parsia (Hamilton) and Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) - J. Microsc. Ultrastruct. 2: 245-250.
Chang M.H., Lin J.F. 1992 - Gastric histological structure and localization of carbonic anhydrase of tilapia - J. Chin. Soc. Vet. Sc. 18: 243-253.
Clarke A.J., Witcomb D.M. - 1980. A study of the histology and morphology of the digestive tract of the common eel (Anguilla anguilla) - J. Fish Biol.16: 159-170.
Dasgupta M. 2001 - Morphological adaptation of the alimentary canal of four Labeo species in relation to their food and feeding habits - Indian J. Fish. 48: 255-257.
Diaz A.O., Garcia A.M., Devincenti C.V., Goldemberg A.L. 2003 - Morphological and histochemical characterization of the mucosa of the digestive tract in Engrolllis anchoita (Hubbs and Marini, 1935) - Anat. Histol. Embryol. 32: 341-346.
El-Bakary N.E.R. 2007 - Comparative histological study of the digestive tract of Oreochromis aureus and Anguilla anguilla - J. Egypt Ger. Soc. Zool. 53: 29-47.
Fink W.L. 1993 - Revision of the piranha genus Pygocentrus (Teleostei, Characiformes) - Copeia 3: 665-687.
Gallagher M.L., Luczkovich J.J., Stellwag E.J. 2001 - Characterization of the ultrastructure of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa, stomach contents and liver enzyme activity of the pinfish during development - J. Fish Biol. 58: 1704-1713.
Gargiulo A.M., Ceccarelli P., Dall’agelio C., Pedini V. 1997 - Ultrastructural study on the stomach of Tilapia spp. (Teleostei) - Anat. Histol. Embryol. 26: 331-336.
Ghosh S.K., Chakrabarti P. 2015 - Histological and histochemical characterization on stomach of Mystus cavasius (Hamilton), Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) and Gudusia chapra (Hamilton): comparative study - J. Basic Appl. Zool. 70: 16-24.
Gisbert E., Sarasquete M.C., Williot P., Castelló-Orvay F. 1999 - Histochemistry of the development of the digestive system of Siberian sturgeon during early ontogeny - J. Fish Biol. 55: 596-616.
Grau A., Crespo S., Sarasquete M.C., Gonzalez de Canales M.L. 1992 - The digestive tract of the amberjack Seriola dumerili, Risso: a light and scanning electron microscope study - J. Fish Biol. 41: 287-303.
Greco V., Lauro G., Fabrini A., Torsoli A. 1967 - Histochemistry of the colonic epithelial mucins in normal subjects and patients with ulcerative colitis. A quantitative and histophotometric investigation - Gut, 8: 491-496.
Klumpp D.W., Nichols P.D. 1983 - Nutrition of the Southern Sea garfish Hyporhamphus rnelanoehir: gut passage rate and daily consumption of two food types and assimilation of seagrass components - Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 12: 207-216.
Mallory F.B. 1936 - The aniline blue collagen stain - Stain Technol. 11: 101.
Mazia D., Brewer P.A., Alfert M. 1953 - The cytochemical staining and measurement of protein with mercuric bromophenol blue - Biol. Bull. 104: 57.
Medeiros L.O., Ferris S., Godinha H., Medeiros L.F. 1970 - Proteins and polysaccharides of the club shaped cells in the lining epithelium of fish (Pimelodus maculates) digestive tract: histochemical study - Ann. d’Histochimie. 15: 181-186.
Mehrotra B.K., Khanna S.S. 1969 - Histomorphology of the oesophagous and the stomach in some Indian teleost with inference on their adaptational features - Zool. Beitr. Berl. 15: 375-391.
Moshin S.M. 1962 - Comparative morphology and histology of the alimentary canals in certain groups of Indian teleosts - Acta Zool. 43: 79-133.
Mowry R.W. 1956 - Alcian blue technique for the histochemical study of acidic carbohydrates - J. Histochem. Cytochem. 4: 403.
Murray H.M., Wright G.M., Goff G.P. 1994 - A comparative histology and histochemical study of the stomach from three species of pleuronectid, the Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, the yellow tail flounder, Pleuronectes ferruginea, and the winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus - Can. J. Zoology. 72: 1199-1210.
Musa M., Yanuhar U., Susilo E., Soemarno. 2013 - Stomach histological decay of milkfish, Chanos Chanos (Forsskål, 1775): ontogeny, environmental stress, shifting food composition, and disease infection - J. Nat. Sci. Res. 3: 194-200.
Naguib S.A.A., EI-Shabaka H.A., Ashour F. 2011 - Comparative histological and ultrastructural studies on the stomach of Schilbe mystus and the intestinal swelling of Labeo niloticus - J. Am. Sci. 7: 251-263.
Nikolsky G.V. 1963 - The ecology of fishes - Academic Press, London and New York, 352 p.
Osman A.H.K., Caceci T. 1991 - Histology of the stomach of Tilapia nilotica (Linnaeus, 1758) from the River Nile - J. Fish Biol. 38: 211-223.
Petrinec Z., Nejedli S., Kuir S., Opaëak A. 2005 - Mucosubstances of the digestive tract mucosa in northern pike (Esox lucius L.) and European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) - Vet. Arhiv. 75: 317-327.
Reifel C.W., Travill A.A. 1978 - Structure and carbohydrate histochemistry of the stomach in eight species of teleosts - J. Morphol. 158: 155-168.
Rebolledo I.M., Vial J.D. 1979 - Fine structure of the oxynticopeptic cells in the gastric glands of an elasmobranch species (Halaerurus chilensis) - Anat. Rec. 193: 805-821.
Sinha G.M., Chakrabarti P. 1986 - Scanning electron microscopic studies on the mucosa of the digestive tract in Mystus aor (Hamilton) - Proc. Indian Natn. Sci. Acad. B52: 267-273.
Smith L.S. 1989 - Digestive functions in teleost fishes - In: Fish nutrition, 2nd ed. (Ed.) J.E. Halver, Academic Press, London: 331-421.
Sriwastwa V.M.S. 1970 - Functional anatomy of digestive organs of a fresh-water fish Rhynchobdella aculeata (Ham.) - Act. Soc. Zool. 34: 136-142.
Unal G., Cetinkaya O., Kankaya E., Elp M. 2001 - Histological study of the organogenesis of the digestive system and swim bladder of the Chalcalburnus tarichi Pallas, 1811 (Cyprinidae) - Turk. J. Zool. 25: 217-228.
Xiong D., Zhang L., Yu H., Xie C., Kong Y., Zeng Y., Huo B., Liu Z. 2011 - A study of morphological and histology of the alimentary tract of Glyptosternum maculatum (Sisoridae, silurifores) - Acta Zool. 96: 161-169.