Ruffe (Gymnocephalus Cernuus L.) Growth and Diet in Lake Dusia (Southern Lithuania)

Open access

Abstract

The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.), is considered to be a food competitor with many commercially valuable fishes such as bream, Abramis brama (L.), roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L.), and perch, Perca fluviatilis L. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fish community structure of Lake Dusia and the population parameters (morphometry, age, growth, diet) of ruffe as one of the prevailing fish species in the lake. The fish community of Lake Dusia was dominated by ruffe, perch, and roach. The ruffe population constituted 64.1% of the fish community of the lake in relative abundance and 36.8% in biomass. An analysis of the ruffe diet revealed that Gammaridae and Chironomidae were the principal components in all age-classes. The ruffe population was comprised mainly of individuals 3+ and 4+ years of age. The mean total length (TL) of ruffe was 13.39 ± 1.79 cm (minimum-maximum: 6.12-19.93 cm). The growth in length calculated using the von Bertalanffy equation was Lt = 21.3[1-e-a161(t-0,335)]. Ruffe growth rates were found to slow as the fish aged. Ruffe growth variations were linked to population density, fish community structure in the water body, abundance of invertebrates (zooplankton and zoobenthos), and type of water body.

Abstract

The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.), is considered to be a food competitor with many commercially valuable fishes such as bream, Abramis brama (L.), roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L.), and perch, Perca fluviatilis L. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fish community structure of Lake Dusia and the population parameters (morphometry, age, growth, diet) of ruffe as one of the prevailing fish species in the lake. The fish community of Lake Dusia was dominated by ruffe, perch, and roach. The ruffe population constituted 64.1% of the fish community of the lake in relative abundance and 36.8% in biomass. An analysis of the ruffe diet revealed that Gammaridae and Chironomidae were the principal components in all age-classes. The ruffe population was comprised mainly of individuals 3+ and 4+ years of age. The mean total length (TL) of ruffe was 13.39 ± 1.79 cm (minimum-maximum: 6.12-19.93 cm). The growth in length calculated using the von Bertalanffy equation was Lt = 21.3[1-e-a161(t-0,335)]. Ruffe growth rates were found to slow as the fish aged. Ruffe growth variations were linked to population density, fish community structure in the water body, abundance of invertebrates (zooplankton and zoobenthos), and type of water body.

References

  • Bergman E. 1990 - Effects of roach Rutilus rutilus on two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernua: importance of species interactions for diet shifts - Oikos 57: 241-249.

  • Bergman E. 1991 - Changes in abundance of two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernuus, along a productivity gradient: Relations to feeding strategies and competitive abilities - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 536-545.

  • Bergman E., Greenberg L.A. 1994 - Competition between a planktivore, a benthivore, and a species with ontogenetic diet shifts - Ecology 75: 1233-1245.

  • Boikova O.S. 1986 - Feeding of fish in Lake Glubokoe (USSR): Decrease in perch and ruff - Hydrobiologia 141: 95-111.

  • Boron S. Kuklinska B. 1987 - Food of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus L.) and Gudgeon (Gobio gobio) in Wloclawek dam Reservoir - Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 17: 59-76.

  • Bubinas A., Bukelskis E. 1998 - Freshwater community structure and analytical methods - Vilnius University Press, Vilnius, 120 p. (in Lithuanian).

  • Dautartas J. 1983 - Some biological data on ruffe from the artificial Lake Kauno Marios - Graduation dissertation, Vilnius University, Vilnius, 37 p. (in Lithuanian).

  • Hilbom R., Walters C.J. 1992 - Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment: Choice, Dynamics and Uncertainty New York: Chapman and Hall, 570 p.

  • Jablonskis S. 1981 - Daily diet of bream and ruffe of the artificial Lake Kauno Marios - Graduation dissertation, Vilnius University, Vilnius, 36 p. (in Lithuanian).

  • Jamet J.L., Desmolles F. 1994 - Growth, reproduction, and condition of roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.)) in eutrophic Lake Aydat (France) - Internat. Rev. Gesam. Hydrobiol. 78: 305-322.

  • Johansson L. Persson L. 1986 - The fish community of temperate eutrophic lakes - In: Carbon Dynamics in Eutrophic, Temperate Lakes (Eds) B. Reimann, M. Sondergaard, Elsevier Science Publications, Amsterdam: 237-266.

  • Johnsen P. 1965 - Studies on the distribution and food of the ruffe (Acerina cernua L.) in Denmark, with notes on other aspects - Meddelelser fra Danmarks Fiskeriog Havundersřgelser, New Series, 4: 137- 156.

  • Jurev A.L. 2007 - Ekologija rib ozera Oron - Avtorefferat disertacij na soiskanije ucenoj ctepeni kandidata biologiceskich nauk. Irkutsk, 19 p. (in Russian).

  • Kalas S. 1995 - The ecology of ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (Pisces: Percidae) introduced to Mildevatn, western Norway - Environ. Biol. Fish. 42: 219-232.

  • Kangur P., Kangur A., Kangur K., Mols T. 2003 - Condition and growth of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.) in two large shallow lakes with different fish fauna and food recourse - Hydrobiologia 506-509: 435-441.

  • Kublickas A. 1959 - Nutrition of benthophagous fish in the Curonian Lagoon - In: The Curonian Lagoon. Results of integrated research (Ed.) K. Jankevičius, Institute of Biology, Vilnius, Lithuania: 463-519 (in Russian).

  • Kybartaite B. 1961 - Data on bream, perch, and ruffe biology and growth in Lake Drysviaty - Graduation dissertation, Vilnius University, Vilnius, 60 p. (in Lithuanian).

  • Leach J.H., Johnson J.W., Entz B. 1977 - Responses of percid fishes and their habitats to eutrophication - J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34: 1964-1971.

  • Lelek A. 1987 - The freshwater fishes of Europe: Threatened fishes of Europe - AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden. 9: 343.

  • Lind E.A. 1977 - A review of pikeperch (Stizostedion lucio-perca), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), and ruff (Gymnocephalus cernua) in Finland - J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34: 1684-1695.

  • Lorenzoni M., Pace R., Pedicillo G., Viali P., Carosi A. 2009 - Growth, catches and reproductive biology of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus in Lake Piediluco (Umbria, Italy) - Folia Zool. 58: 420-435.

  • Mills C.A. Eloranta A. 1985 - The biology of Phoxinus phoxinus (L.) and other littoral zone fishes in Lake Konnevesi, Central Finland - Ann. Zool. Fenn. 22: 1-12.

  • Ogle D.H., Selgeby J.H., Newman R.M., Henry M.G. 1995 - Diet and feeding periodicity of ruffe in the St. Louis River Estuary, Lake Superior - Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 124: 356-369. gle D.H. 1998 - A synopsis of the biology and life history of ruffe - J. Great Lakes Res. 24: 170-185.

  • Ogle D.H., Winfield I.J. 2009 - Ruffe length-weight relationships with a proposed standard weight equation - North Am. J. Fish. Manage. 29: 850-858.

  • Orlova E.L., Popova O.A. 1986 - Feeding of predatory fishes in relation to concentration of prey organisms - J. Ichthyol. 26: 72-79.

  • Ricker W E. 1975 - Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations - Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can 191: 1-382.

  • Sabaneev L.P. 1911 - Fishes of Russia - Moscow, 1062 p. (in Russian).

  • Sierszen M.K., Keough J.R., Cagley C.A. 1996 - Trophic analysis of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) and white perch (Morone americana) in a Lake Superior coastal food web, using stable izotope techniques - J. Great Lakes Res. 22:436-443.

  • Sparre P., Ursin E., Venema S.C. 1989 - Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment - Manual, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper Part 1, Rome: (306-1): 337.

  • Subatavičiūtė D. 1960 - Biological research on ruffe from Lake Dysnai - Graduation dissertation, Vilnius University, 39 p. (in Lithuanian).

  • Stakenas S., Kaupinis A., Skrupskelis K. 2007 - Research methodology of fish growth and growth classification -Scientific report, Hydrobiologists society of Lithuania, Vilnius (in Lithuanian).

  • Universal Lithuanian Encyclopedia 2004 - Dis-Fatva, vol. V -Institute of Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing, Vilnius, 799 p. (in Lithuanian).

  • Tarvainen M., Vuorio K., Sarvala J. 2008 - The diet of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.) in northern lakes: new insights from stable isotope analyses - J. Fish Biol. 72: 1720-1735.

  • Thoresson G. 1993 - Guidelines for coastal monitoring - fishery biology - Kustrapport 1: 1-35.

  • Titova J. 2007 - Diet peculiarities of freshwater bream (Abramis brama) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) from the central part (near Vente Cape) of the Curonian Lagoon - Master thesis, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania (in Lithuanian).

  • Virbickas J. 2000 - Fishes of Lithuania - Trys žvaigždutės, Vilnius, 192 p. (in Lithuanian).

  • Virbickas J., Kesminas V., Repečka R., Balkuvienė G., Virbickas T., Stakėnas S. 1996 - The state and dynamics of fish population parameters (1993-1995) - Environmental monitoring 1993-1995, Vilnius (in Lithuanian).

  • Virbickas J. 1988 - Structure and Development of Ichthyocenoses in the Lakes of Lithuania - Acta hydrobiologica, Lituanica. 8: 74-93.

Bergman E. 1990 - Effects of roach Rutilus rutilus on two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernua: importance of species interactions for diet shifts - Oikos 57: 241-249.

Bergman E. 1991 - Changes in abundance of two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernuus, along a productivity gradient: Relations to feeding strategies and competitive abilities - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 536-545.

Bergman E., Greenberg L.A. 1994 - Competition between a planktivore, a benthivore, and a species with ontogenetic diet shifts - Ecology 75: 1233-1245.

Boikova O.S. 1986 - Feeding of fish in Lake Glubokoe (USSR): Decrease in perch and ruff - Hydrobiologia 141: 95-111.

Boron S. Kuklinska B. 1987 - Food of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus L.) and Gudgeon (Gobio gobio) in Wloclawek dam Reservoir - Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 17: 59-76.

Bubinas A., Bukelskis E. 1998 - Freshwater community structure and analytical methods - Vilnius University Press, Vilnius, 120 p. (in Lithuanian).

Dautartas J. 1983 - Some biological data on ruffe from the artificial Lake Kauno Marios - Graduation dissertation, Vilnius University, Vilnius, 37 p. (in Lithuanian).

Hilbom R., Walters C.J. 1992 - Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment: Choice, Dynamics and Uncertainty New York: Chapman and Hall, 570 p.

Jablonskis S. 1981 - Daily diet of bream and ruffe of the artificial Lake Kauno Marios - Graduation dissertation, Vilnius University, Vilnius, 36 p. (in Lithuanian).

Jamet J.L., Desmolles F. 1994 - Growth, reproduction, and condition of roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.)) in eutrophic Lake Aydat (France) - Internat. Rev. Gesam. Hydrobiol. 78: 305-322.

Johansson L. Persson L. 1986 - The fish community of temperate eutrophic lakes - In: Carbon Dynamics in Eutrophic, Temperate Lakes (Eds) B. Reimann, M. Sondergaard, Elsevier Science Publications, Amsterdam: 237-266.

Johnsen P. 1965 - Studies on the distribution and food of the ruffe (Acerina cernua L.) in Denmark, with notes on other aspects - Meddelelser fra Danmarks Fiskeriog Havundersřgelser, New Series, 4: 137- 156.

Jurev A.L. 2007 - Ekologija rib ozera Oron - Avtorefferat disertacij na soiskanije ucenoj ctepeni kandidata biologiceskich nauk. Irkutsk, 19 p. (in Russian).

Kalas S. 1995 - The ecology of ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (Pisces: Percidae) introduced to Mildevatn, western Norway - Environ. Biol. Fish. 42: 219-232.

Kangur P., Kangur A., Kangur K., Mols T. 2003 - Condition and growth of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.) in two large shallow lakes with different fish fauna and food recourse - Hydrobiologia 506-509: 435-441.

Kublickas A. 1959 - Nutrition of benthophagous fish in the Curonian Lagoon - In: The Curonian Lagoon. Results of integrated research (Ed.) K. Jankevičius, Institute of Biology, Vilnius, Lithuania: 463-519 (in Russian).

Kybartaite B. 1961 - Data on bream, perch, and ruffe biology and growth in Lake Drysviaty - Graduation dissertation, Vilnius University, Vilnius, 60 p. (in Lithuanian).

Leach J.H., Johnson J.W., Entz B. 1977 - Responses of percid fishes and their habitats to eutrophication - J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34: 1964-1971.

Lelek A. 1987 - The freshwater fishes of Europe: Threatened fishes of Europe - AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden. 9: 343.

Lind E.A. 1977 - A review of pikeperch (Stizostedion lucio-perca), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), and ruff (Gymnocephalus cernua) in Finland - J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34: 1684-1695.

Lorenzoni M., Pace R., Pedicillo G., Viali P., Carosi A. 2009 - Growth, catches and reproductive biology of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus in Lake Piediluco (Umbria, Italy) - Folia Zool. 58: 420-435.

Mills C.A. Eloranta A. 1985 - The biology of Phoxinus phoxinus (L.) and other littoral zone fishes in Lake Konnevesi, Central Finland - Ann. Zool. Fenn. 22: 1-12.

Ogle D.H., Selgeby J.H., Newman R.M., Henry M.G. 1995 - Diet and feeding periodicity of ruffe in the St. Louis River Estuary, Lake Superior - Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 124: 356-369. gle D.H. 1998 - A synopsis of the biology and life history of ruffe - J. Great Lakes Res. 24: 170-185.

Ogle D.H., Winfield I.J. 2009 - Ruffe length-weight relationships with a proposed standard weight equation - North Am. J. Fish. Manage. 29: 850-858.

Orlova E.L., Popova O.A. 1986 - Feeding of predatory fishes in relation to concentration of prey organisms - J. Ichthyol. 26: 72-79.

Ricker W E. 1975 - Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations - Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can 191: 1-382.

Sabaneev L.P. 1911 - Fishes of Russia - Moscow, 1062 p. (in Russian).

Sierszen M.K., Keough J.R., Cagley C.A. 1996 - Trophic analysis of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) and white perch (Morone americana) in a Lake Superior coastal food web, using stable izotope techniques - J. Great Lakes Res. 22:436-443.

Sparre P., Ursin E., Venema S.C. 1989 - Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment - Manual, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper Part 1, Rome: (306-1): 337.

Subatavičiūtė D. 1960 - Biological research on ruffe from Lake Dysnai - Graduation dissertation, Vilnius University, 39 p. (in Lithuanian).

Stakenas S., Kaupinis A., Skrupskelis K. 2007 - Research methodology of fish growth and growth classification -Scientific report, Hydrobiologists society of Lithuania, Vilnius (in Lithuanian).

Universal Lithuanian Encyclopedia 2004 - Dis-Fatva, vol. V -Institute of Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing, Vilnius, 799 p. (in Lithuanian).

Tarvainen M., Vuorio K., Sarvala J. 2008 - The diet of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.) in northern lakes: new insights from stable isotope analyses - J. Fish Biol. 72: 1720-1735.

Thoresson G. 1993 - Guidelines for coastal monitoring - fishery biology - Kustrapport 1: 1-35.

Titova J. 2007 - Diet peculiarities of freshwater bream (Abramis brama) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) from the central part (near Vente Cape) of the Curonian Lagoon - Master thesis, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania (in Lithuanian).

Virbickas J. 2000 - Fishes of Lithuania - Trys žvaigždutės, Vilnius, 192 p. (in Lithuanian).

Virbickas J., Kesminas V., Repečka R., Balkuvienė G., Virbickas T., Stakėnas S. 1996 - The state and dynamics of fish population parameters (1993-1995) - Environmental monitoring 1993-1995, Vilnius (in Lithuanian).

Virbickas J. 1988 - Structure and Development of Ichthyocenoses in the Lakes of Lithuania - Acta hydrobiologica, Lituanica. 8: 74-93.

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