In this study, the effect of the halved dosage of RRR-d-α-tocopherol (with respect to dl-α-to-copherol acetate) in diets containing oil rich in linoleic or α-linolenic acid (soybean or linseed oil, respectively) on the quality characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of turkey meat was studied. The experiment was conducted using 480 one-week-old turkey hens Big 6 line reared until the 16th week of life. The hens in Groups I and II received soybean oil added to their feed mixture, in Groups III and IV linseed oil was the source of supplementary fat. Turkeys in Groups I and III received dl-α-tocopherol acetate, whereas those in Groups II and IV RRR-d-α-tocopherol. No influence of dietary manipulation was observed on the chemical composition of turkey meat. The combined effect of the type of dietary fat and vitamin E source added to the feed was assessed using the color parameters. The addition of natural vitamin E to the feed mixture with linseed oil significantly increased the proportion of PUFA in breast muscle lipids compared with the group receiving soybean oil with this form of vitamin E. The inclusion of linseed oil increased the content of α-linolenic acid and total n-3 FA concentration in both muscles, compared with the diet that contained soybean oil. This modification of FA composition led to lower n-6/n-3 ratio in both the breast and thigh muscles regardless of the dietary vitamin E source. The use of natural form of tocopherol in diets containing linseed oil may help to improve the nutritional quality of turkey meat, especially by enhancing n-3 PUFA levels with no detrimental effect of lipid addition on the chemical composition and quality of meat.
Abdulla N.R., Loh T.C., Akit H., Sazili A.Q., Foo H.L., Mohamad R., Rahim R.A., Ebrahimi M., Sabow A.B. (2015). Fatty acid profile, cholesterol and oxidative status in broiler chicken breast muscle fed different dietary oil sources and calcium levels. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 45: 153–163.
American Meat Science Association (2012). Meat Color Measurements Guidelines. Champaign, IL, USA: AMSA.
AOAC (1990). Official method 969.33. Fatty acids in oils and fats. Preparation of methyl esters. Boron trifluoride. In: Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th edn, (edited by K. Helrich). Arlington, VA: AOAC International, pp. 963–964.
AOAC International (2000). Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th edition. Gaithers-burg, MD, USA, Association of Analytical Communities.
Bianchi M., Ferioli F., Petracci M., Caboni M.F., Cavani C. (2009). The influence of dietary lipid source on quality characteristics of raw and processed chicken meat. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 229: 339–348.
Bou R., Codony R., Tres A., Decker E.A., Guardiola F. (2009). Dietary strategies to improve nutritional value, oxidative stability, and sensory properties of poultry products. Crit. Rev. Food Sci., 49: 800–822.
Carmona J.M., Rey A.I., Lopez-Bote C.J. (2008). Effect of the administration time of dietary sunflower oil on fatty acid profile and quality characteristics in chicken fat and breast muscle. Arch. Geflugelkd., 72: 25–34.
Commission Internationale de lʽEclairage (CIE) (1978). Supplement No. 2 to CIE Publication No. 15 Colorimetry. Paris, France: Bureau Central de la CIE.
Cortinas L., Villaverde C., Galobart J., Baucells M.D., Codony R., Barroeta A.C. (2004). Fatty acid content in chicken thigh and breast as affected by dietary polyunsaturation level. Poultry Sci., 83: 1155–1164.
Crespo N., Esteve-Garcia E. (2001). Dietary fatty acid profile modifies abdominal fat deposition in broiler chickens. Poultry Sci., 80: 71–78.
Czech A., Ognik K. (2014). The effect of using soyabean or linseed oil with RRR-d-α-tocopherol or dl-α-tocopherol acetate on haematological parameters and rearing performance of young turkey hens. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 23: 37–44.
Damaziak K., Pietrzak D., Michalczuk M., Mroczek J., Niemiec J. (2013). Effect of genotype and sex on selected quality attributes of turkey meat. Arch. Geflugelkd., 77: 206–214.
Delezie E., Aerts J.M., Maertens L., Huyghebaert G. (2010). The efficiency of long chain n-3 fatty acid deposition of different dietary oils in turkeys at different ages. Arch. Geflugelkd., 74: 51–57.
Hassan M.S.H., Nadia L., Radwan A.M., Khalek A., Abd El-Samad M.H. (2011). Effect of different dietary linoleic acid to linolenic acid ratios on some productive, immunological and physiological traits of Dandarawy chicks. Egypt. Poultry Sci., 31: 149–160.
Honikel K.O. (1998). Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Sci., 49: 447–457.
Huff-Lonergan E., Lonergan S.M. (2005). Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Sci., 71: 194–204.
Jankowski J., Zduńczyk P., Mikulski D., Juśkiewicz J., Mikulska M., Zdu ńczyk Z. (2012). Effects of dietary soyabean, rapeseed and linseed oils on performance, slaughter yield and fatty acid profile of breast meat in turkeys. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 21: 143–156.
Jankowski J., Zdunczyk Z., Mikulski D., Naczmanski J., Juskiewicz J., Troszynska A., Slominski B.A. (2015). Inclusion of flaxseed in turkey diets decreases the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and increases the proportion of biologically active EPA and DHA without affecting meat quality. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech., 117: 797–809.
Karwowska M., Stadnik J., Dolatowski Z.J., Grela E.R. (2010). Effect of protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa supplementation on physico–chemical properties of turkey breast and thigh muscles during ageing. Meat Sci., 86: 486–490.
Komprda T., Zelenka J., Bakaj P., Kladroba D., Blazkova E., Fajmonova E. (2002). Cholesterol and fatty acid content in meat of turkeys fed diets with sunflower, linseed or fish oil. Arch. Geflugelkd., 67: 65–75.
Koreleski J., Świątkiewicz S. (2008). Enrichment of vitamin E in breast meat by adding to-copheryl acetate to the feed of broiler chickens. Med. Weter., 64: 348–350.
Lessire M. (2001). Matières grasses alimentaires et composition lipidique des volailles. INRA Productions Animales, 14: 365–370.
Lorente-Cebrián S., Costa A.G., Navas-Carretero S., Zabala M., Martínez J.A., Moreno-Aliaga M.J. (2013). Role of omega-3 fatty acids in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence. J. Physiol. Biochem., 69: 633–651.
Mahan D.C., Kim Y.Y., Stuart R.L. (2000). Effect of vitamin E sources (RRR-or all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and levels on sow reproductive performance, serum, tissue, and milk α–tocopherol contents over a five–parity period, and the effects on the progeny. J. Anim. Sci., 78: 110–119.
Mc Neill S.H. (2014). Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns. Meat Sci., 98: 452–460.
Mercier Y., Gatellier P., Viau M., Remignon H., Renerre M. (1998). Effect of dietary fat and vitamin E on colour stability and on lipid and protein oxidation in turkey meat during storage. Meat Sci., 48: 301–318.
Mikulski D., Jankowski J., Zdunczyk Z., Juskiewicz J., Slominski B.A. (2012). The effect of different dietary levels of rapeseed meal on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in turkeys. Poultry Sci., 91: 215–223.
Nam K.T., Lee H.A., Min B.S., Kang C.W. (1997). Influence of dietary supplementation with lin-seed and vitamin E on fatty acids, α-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation in muscles of broiler chicks. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 66: 149–158.
NRC (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. Ninth Revised Edition. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
Nuernberg K., Fischer K., Nuernberg G., Kuechenmeister U., Klosowska D., Eliminowska-Wenda G., Fiedler I., Ender K. (2005). Effects of dietary olive and lin-seed oil on lipid composition, meat quality, sensory characteristics and muscle structure in pigs. Meat Sci., 70: 63–74.
Ognik K., Czech A. (2014). Effect of feeding soybean, linseed oil and different forms of tocopherol on the redox and immune profiles of turkey hens. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 44: 322–334.
Ognik K., Wertelecki T. (2012). Effect of different vitamin E sources and levels on selected oxidative status indices in blood and tissues as well as on rearing performance of slaughter turkey hens. J. Appl. Poultry Res., 21: 259–271.
Rey A.I., Lopez-Bote C.J., Kerry J.P., Lynch P.B., Buckley D.J., Morrissey P.A. (2004). Modification of lipid composition and oxidation in porcine muscle and muscle microsomes as affected by dietary supplementation of n-3 with either n-9 or n-6 fatty acids and α-tocopheryl acetate. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 113: 223–238.
Rusinek-Prystupa E., Szkucik K., Pisarski R., Gondek M. (2014). Effect of extract of grapefruit seeds and baikal skullcap root on chemical composition and sensory traits of female turkey meat. EJPAU, 17: #03.
Rymer C., Givens D.I. (2005). n-3 fatty acid enrichment of edible tissue of poultry: a review. Lipids, 40: 121–130.
Sarica M., Ocak N., Turhan S., Kop C., Yamak U.S. (2011). Evaluation of meat quality from 3 turkey genotypes reared with or without outdoor access. Poultry Sci., 90: 1313–1323.
Schiavone A., Marzoni M., Castillo A., Nery J., Romboli I. (2010). Dietary lipid sources and vitamin E affect fatty acid composition or lipid stability of breast meat from Muscovy duck. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 90: 371–378.
Second Local Ethical Committee for Animal Experiments in Lublin, 2009. Resolution Number 11/2009 of 20 January 2009. University of Life Sciences, Akademicka 13, Lublin, Poland.
USDA (2016). National nutrient database for standard reference – Release 28. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, DC, USA.
Voutila L., Ruusunen M., Jouppila K., Puolanne E. (2009). Thermal properties of connective tissue in breast and leg muscles of chickens and turkeys. J. Sci. Food Agri., 89: 890–896.
Wierbicki E., Tiede M.G., Burrell R.C. (1962). Die Bestimmung der Fleischquellung als Methode zur Untersuchung der Wasserbindungskapazität von Muskelproteinen mit geringem Salthaltevermögen. Fleischwirtschaft, 10: 948–951.
Wood J.D., Richardson R.I., Nute G.R., Fisher A.V., Campo M.M., Kasapidou E., Sheard P.R., Enser M. (2003). Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: a review. Meat Sci., 66: 21–32.
Yu L.L., Wang R.L., Zhang Y.Z., Kleemann D.O., Zhu X.P., Jia Z.H. (2008). Effects of selenium supplementation on polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and antioxidant status in plasma and liver of lambs fed linseed oil or sunflower oil diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 140: 39–51.
Zduńczyk Z., Jankowski J. (2013). Poultry meat as functional food: Modification of the fatty acid profile – a review. Ann. Anim. Sci., 13: 463–480.
Zhuang H., Savage E.M. (2013). Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of boneless skinless white meat cooked from a frozen or thawed state. Poultry Sci., 92: 3003–3009.