Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production of Holstein Cow

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding oil supplement on mammary gland development and milk production responses in Holstein cows. Ten multiparous Holstein cows (42.2±9.2 d before calving, 3.25±0.25 body condition score, and 620±35 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments were a diet with oil added as palm oil (PO; n=5), or fish oil (FO; n=5) given to cows until 63 d in milk. Milk yield was recorded daily, milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, total solid and somatic cell count) was measured weekly and fatty acid profiles of milk fat were determined at first and last week of the experiment. Samples of mammary tissue were obtained at 7 and 63 d in milk by biopsy gun. Tissue slides were analyzed by Image J software. Results showed that fish oil supplemented diet compared to the palm oil supplemented diet increased milk production after 6 weeks of lactation (P<0.05), content of polyunsaturated fatty acids milk fat (P<0.05) and docosahexaenoic acid (P<0.01). Moreover, n-6:n-3 ratio was decreased by fish oil supplement (P<0.05). Histological studies showed that FO increased the relative percentage of tissue area occupied by epithelial cells as well as a number of total alveoli in each microscopic field (P<0.05). Data suggested that feeding fish oil during the dry period and early lactation could improve development and function of the mammary gland in the dairy cow.

Abramoff M.D., Magelhaes P.J., Ram S.J. (2004). Image Processing with ImageJ. Bioph. Inter., 11: 36–42.

Abu-Ghazaleh A.A., Schingoethe D.J., Hippen A.R., Kalscheur K.F., Whitlock L.A. (2002). Fatty acid profiles of milk and rumen digesta from cows fed fish oil, extruded soybeans or their blend. J. Dairy Sci., 85: 2266–2276.

Akers R.M. (2002). Lactation and the mammary gland. Iowa, USA, Wiley-Blackwell, 1st ed., 278 pp.

Akers R.M., Nickerson S.C. (1983). Effect of prepartum blockade of microtubule formation on milk production and biochemical differentiation on the mammary epithelium in Holstein heifers. Int. J. Biochem., 15: 771–775.

Akers R.M., Capuco A.V., Keys J.E. (2006). Mammary histology and alveolar cell differentiation during late gestation and early lactation in mammary tissue of beef and dairy heifers. Livest. Sci., 105: 44–49.

AOAC International (2000). Official Methods of Analysis, 17th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.

Badiei A., Aliverdilou A., Amanlou H., Beheshti M., Dirandeh E., Masoumi R., Moosakhani F., Petit H.V. (2014). Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period. J. Dairy Sci., 97: 6391–6399.

Bartsch H., Nair J., Owen R.W. (1999). Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer of breast and colorectum: emerging evidence for their role as risk modifiers. Carcinogenesis, 20: 2209–2218.

Bauman D.E., Griinari J.M. (2001). Regulation and nutritional manipulation of milk fat: low-fat milk syndrome. Livest. Prod. Sci., 70: 15–29.

Bauman D.E., Mather I.H., Wall R.J., Lock A.L. (2006). Major advances associated with the biosynthesis of milk. J. Dairy Sci., 89: 1235–1243.

Bharathan M., Schingoethe D.J., Hippen A.R., Kalscheur K.F., Gibson M.L., Karges K. (2008). Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil. J. Dairy Sci., 91: 2796–2807.

Boutinaud M., Guinard-Flament J., Jammes H. (2004). The number and activity of mammary epithelial cells, determining factors for milk production. Reprod. Nutr. Dev., 44: 499–508.

Brown E.G., Vande Haar M.J., Daniels K.M., Liesman J.S., Chapin L.T., Forrest J.W., Akers A.M., Pearson R.E., Weber Nielson M.S. (2005). Effect of increasing energy and protein intake on mammary development in heifer calves. J. Dairy Sci., 88: 595–603.

Caldari-Torres C., Rodriguez-Sallaberry C., Greene E.S., Badinga L. (2006). Differential effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on prostaglandin F production by bovine endometrial cells. J. Dairy Sci., 89: 971–977.

Calde r P.C. (2009 a). Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: new twists in an old tale. Biochimie, 91: 791–795.

Calde r P.C. (2009 b). Fatty acids and immune function: Relevance to inflammatory bowel diseases. Int. Rev. Immun., 28: 506–534.

Capuco A.V., Wood D.L., Baldwin R., Mcleod K., Paape M.J. (2001). Mammary cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis during a bovine lactation: relation to milk production and effect of bST. J. Dairy Sci., 84: 2177–2187.

Chalkey H.W. (1943). Method for the quantitative morphologic analysis of tissues. J. Nation. Cancer Inst., 4: 47–53.

Chilliard Y., Martin C., Rouel J., Doreau M. (2009). Milk fatty acids in dairy cows fed whole crude linseed, extruded linseed, or linseed oil, and their relationship with methane output. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 5199–5211.

Coppock C.E., Wilks D.L. (1991). Supplemental fat in high-energy ration for lactating cows: effects on intake, digestion, milk yield, and composition. J. Anim. Sci., 69: 3826–3837.

Cowing B.E., Saker K.E. (2001). Polyunsaturated fatty acids and epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in mammary cancer. J. Nutr., 131: 1125–1128.

De Vries L.D., Dover H., Casey T., Vande Haar M.J., Plaut K. (2010). Characterization of mammary stromal remodelling during the dry period. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 2433–2443.

Dirandeh E., Towhidi A., Zeinoaldini S., Ganjkhanlou M., Ansari Pirsaraei Z., Fouladi-Nasht a A. (2013 a). Effects of different polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementations during the postpartum periods of early lactating dairy cows on milk yield, metabolicresponses, and reproductive performances. J. Anim. Sci., 91:713–721.

Dirandeh E., Towhidi A., Ansari Pirsaraei Z., Adib Hashemi F., Ganjkhan-lou M., Zeinoaldini S., Rezaei Roodbari A., Saberifar T., Petit H.V. (2013 b). Plasma concentrations of PGFM and uterine and ovarian responses in early lactation dairy cows fed omega-3and omega-6 fatty acids. Theriogenology, 80: 131–137.

Dirandeh E., Towhidi A., Pirsaraei Z.A., Saberifar T., Akhlaghi A., Rodbari A.R. (2015). The endometrial expression of prostaglandin cascade components in lactating dairy cows fed different polyunsaturated fatty acids. Theriogenology, 83: 206–212.

Dirandeh E., Towhidi A., Pirsaraei Z.A., Zeinoaldini S., Ganjkhanlou M. (2016). Effects of dietary supplementation with different polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of genes related to somatotropic axis function in the liver, selected blood indicators, milk yield and milk fatty acids profile in dairy cows. Ann. Anim. Sci., 16: 1045–1058.

Edmonson A.J., Lean I.J., Weaver L.D., Farver T.B., Webster G.A. (1989). A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 72: 68–78.

FASS (2010). Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching. www.Adsa.org

Feng S., Lock A.L., Garnsworthy P.C. (2004). Technical note: a rapid lipid method for determining fatty acid composition of milk. J. Dairy Sci., 87: 3785–3788.

Ferguson J.D., Sklan D., Chalupa W.V., Kronfeld D.S. (1990). Effects of hard fats on in vitro and in vivo rumen fermentation, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 73: 2864–2879.

Field C.J., Schley P.D. (2004). Evidence for potential mechanisms for the effect of conjugated linoleic acid on tumor metabolism and immune function: lessons from n-3 fatty acids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79: 1190S–1198S.

Griinari J.M., Dwyer D.A., Mc Guire M.A., Bauman D.E., Palmquist D.L., Nurmela K.V.V. (1998). Transoctadecenoic acids and milk fat depression in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 81: 1251–1261.

Grummer R.R., Carroll D.J. (1991). Effects of dietary fat on metabolic disorders and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci., 69: 3838–3852.

Heravi Mousavi A.R., Gilbert R.O., Overton T.R., Bauman D.E., Butler W.R. (2007). Effects of feeding fish meal and n-3 fatty acids on milk yield and metabolic responses in early lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 136–144.

Hovey R.C., Mc Fadden T.B., Akers R.M. (1999). Regulation of mammary gland growth and morphogenesis by the mammary fat pad: A species comparison. J. Mamm. Gland Biol. Neopl., 4: 53–68.

Ichihara K., Fukubayashi Y. (2010). Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-liquid chromatography. J. Lipid Res., 51: 635–640.

Jahani-Moghadam M., Mahjoubi E., Dirandeh E. (2015). Effect of linseed feeding on blood metabolites, incidence of cystic follicles, and productive and reproductive performance in fresh Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 98: 1828–1835.

Jenkins T.C., Mc Guire M.A. (2006). Major advances in nutrition: Impact on milk composition. J. Dairy Sci., 89: 1302–1310.

Kasaghaei S., Towhidi A., Ganjkhanlou M., Kohram H., Javaheri Barfou-rooshi H. (2015). Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on ovarian and insulin dynamic in Holstein dairy cows (in Persian). Iranian J. Anim. Sci., 46: 39–46.

Khas-Erdene Q., Wang J.Q., Bu D.P., Wang L., Drackley J.K., Liu Q.S., Yang G., Wei H.Y., Zhou L.Y. (2010). Responses to increasing amounts of free α-linolenic acid infused into the duodenum of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 1677–1684.

Knight C.H., Peaker M. (1984). Mammary development and regression during lactation in goats in relation to milk secretion. Quart. J. Experim. Physiol., 69: 331–338.

Larsson S.C., Kumlin M., Ingelman-Sundberg M., Wolk A. (2004). Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am. J. Clin. Nut., 79: 935–945.

Lin Y., Li Q. (2005). The regulation of development and lactation of mammary gland by leptin. J. Am. Sci., 1: 63–67.

Liu J., Ma D.W.L. (2014). The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. Nutrients, 6: 5184–5223.

Mach N., van Baal J., Kruijt L., Jacobs A., Smits M. (2011). Dietary unsaturated fatty acids affect the mammary gland integrity and health in lactating dairy cows. BMC Proc., 5: S35–S38.

Mc Lennan M., Ma D.W.L. (2010). Role of dietary fatty acids in mammary gland development and breast cancer. Breast Can. Res., 12: 211–220.

Nickerson S.C., Akers R.M. (1983). Effect of prepartum blockade of microtubule formation on ultrastructural differentiation of the mammary epithelium in Holstein heifers. Int. J. Biochem., 15: 777–788.

Norgaard J.V., Nielsen M.O., Theil P.K., Sorensen M.T., Safayi S., Sejrsen K. (2008). Development of mammary glands of fat sheep submitted to restrict feeding late pregnancy. Small Rumin. Res., 76: 155–165.

NRC (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th ed. National Academic Science, Washington, DC, USA.

Ordway R.S., Ishler V.A., Varga G.A. (2002). Effects of sucrose supplementation on dry matter intake, milk yield, and blood metabolites of periparturient Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 85: 879–888.

Piantoni P., Lock A.L., Allen M.S. (2013). Palmitic acid increased yields of milk and milk fat and nutrient digestibility across production level of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci., 96: 7143–7154.

Safayi S., Theil P.K., Elbrond V.S., Hou L., Engbaek M., Norgaard J.V., Sejrsen K., Nielsen M.O. (2010). Mammary remodelling in primiparous and multiparous dairy goats during lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 1478–1490.

Sejrsen K., Purup S., Vestergaard M., Foldager J. (2000). High body weight gain and reduced bovine mammary growth: physiological basis and implications for milk yield potential. Domes. Anim. Endoc., 19: 93–104.

Smith J.J., Capuco A.V., Beal W.E., Akers R.M. (1989). Association of prolactin and insulin receptors with mammogenesis and lobulo-alveolar formation in pregnant ewes. Int. J. Biochem., 21: 73–81.

Tyrrell H.F., Reid J.T. (1965). Prediction of the energy value of cow’s milk. J. Dairy Sci., 48: 1215–1223.

Wall E.H., Auchtung T.L., Dahl G.E., Ellis S.E., Mc Fadden T.B. (2005). Exposure to short day photoperiod during the dry period enhanced mammary growth in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 88: 994–2003.

Weiss W.P., Shoemaker D.E., Mc Beth L.R., St-Pierre N.R. (2013). Effects on lactating dairy cows of oscillating dietary concentrations of unsaturated and total long-chain fatty acids. J. Dairy Sci., 96: 506–514.

Welsch C.W. (1992). Dietary fat, calories, and mammary gland tumorigenesis. Ad. Experim. Med. Biol., 332: 203–222.

Whitlock L.A., Schingoethe D.J., Hippen A.R., Kalscheur K.F., Baer R.J., Ramas-wamy N., Kasperson K.M. (2002). Fish oil and extruded soybean fed in combination increase conjugated linoleic acids in milk of dairy cows more than when fed separately. J. Dairy Sci., 85: 234–243.

Whitlock L.A., Schingoethe D.J., Abu-Ghazaleh A.A., Hippen A.R., Kalscheur K.F. (2006). Milk production and composition from cows fed small amounts of fish oil with extruded soybean. J. Dairy Sci., 89: 3972–3980.

Annals of Animal Science

The Journal of National Research Institute of Animal Production

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.018
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.959



CiteScore 2017: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.413
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.822

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 142 142 40
PDF Downloads 104 104 28