This study evaluated the effect of a once-used progesterone (P4) intravaginal device (PRID) associated with four different shortened P4-based estrus synchronization (ES) protocols on estrous response (ER) and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in cyclic and acyclic lactating dairy cows. Cows (n=465) were randomly assigned to one of the following protocols: 1) 2PGG, cows were given a PRID-Delta and 100 μg GnRH i.m. at PRID insertion (day 0). The PRID was left for 5 d, and 25 mg of dinoprost (PGF2α) i.m. given twice at PRID removal and 24 h later; 2) 2PGGe, same treatments as 2PGG plus 500 IU of eCG i.m. at PRID removal; 3) 2PGe, same treatments as 2PGGe, except GnRH was not given at PRID insertion; 4) PGe, same treatments as 2PGe, except PGF was only given at PRID removal. A total of 258 cows received a new PRID-Delta containing 1.55 g of P4, whereas 207 cows received a once-used PRID. Estrus was determined from P4 device removal until 96 h after using an automated heat detection system. Cows in estrus were given a second GnRH at AI and those without signs of estrus by 96 h after PRID removal were given GnRH and timed-AI (TA I). All inseminations were performed by one technician with commercially available frozen-thawed semen. Ultrasonography was performed at initiation of protocol and 28-34 days post AI to determine cyclicity and pregnancy status, respectively. Cows receiving once-used P4 devices had greater ER than cows receiving a new device (59.9 vs. 50.0; P=0.029), but P/AI did not differ between P4 devices, respectively (P>0.1; 40.6 vs 40.7%). Cyclic cows were less likely to display estrus than acyclic cows by a factor of 0.66 (P=0.036). Cows subjected to the 2PGe (2.41; P<0.01) protocol were more likely to display estrus than cows subjected to the 2PGG, whereas cows subjected to the PGe protocol did not differ (0.94; P=0.8) from those in the 2PGG group. Despite differences in ER, neither cyclicity nor estrus synchronization protocol affected P/AI (overall 40.6%). In summary, cyclic cows, those given a new P4 device and those subjected to either 2PGG or PGe protocol had reduced ER. However, all the factors examined had no significant effect on P/AI. All the estrus synchronization protocols resulted in acceptable fertility.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Bridges G.A., Helser L.A., Grum D.E., Mussard M.L., Gasser C.L., Day M.L. (2008). Decreasing the interval between Gn RHand PGF2a from 7 to 5 days and lengthening proestrus increases timed-AIpregnancy rates in beef cows. Theriogenology, 69: 843-851.
Bryan M.A., Bo G.A., Mapletoft R.J., Emslie F.R. (2013). The use of equine chorionic gonadotropin in the treatment of anestrous dairy cows in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/progesterone protocols of 6 or 7 days. J. Dairy Sci., 96: 122-131.
Cerri R.L.A., Chebel R.C., Rivera F., Narciso C.D., Oliveira R.A., Amstalden M., Baez - Sandoval G.M., Oliveira L.J., Thatcher W.W., Santos J.E.P. (2011). Concentration of progesterone during the development of the ovulatory follicle: II. Ovarian and uterine responses. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 3352-3365.
Colazo M.G., Ambrose D.J. (2011). Neither duration of progesterone insert nor initial Gn RH treatment affect pregnancy per timed-insemination in dairy heifers subjected toa Co-synch protocol. Theriogenology, 76: 578-588.
Colazo M.G., Ambrose D.J. (2015). Effect of initial Gn RHand duration of progesterone insert treatment on the fertility of lactating dairy cows. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 50: 497-504.
Colazo M.G., Kastelic J.P., Whittaker P.R., Gavaga Q.A., Wilde R., Mapletoft R.J. (2004). Fertility in beef cattle givenanew or previously used CIDRinsert and estradiol, with or without progesterone. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 81: 25-34.
Colazo M.G., Dourey A., Rajamahendran R., Ambrose D.J. (2013). Progesterone supplementation before timed AIincreased ovulation synchrony and pregnancy per AI, and supplementation after timed AIreduced pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology, 79: 833-841.
De Rensis F., López- Gatius F. (2014). Use of equine chorionic gonadotropin to control reproduction of the dairy cow:areview. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 49: 177-182.
El - Tarabany M.S. (2016). The efficiency of new CIDRand once-used CIDRto synchronize ovulation in primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 173: 29-34.
Faul F., Erdfelder E., Lang A.G., Buchner A. (2007). G*Power 3: Aflexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behav. Res. Methods, 39: 175-191.
Garcia - Ispierto I., López- Gatius F. (2014). Effects of five-day progesterone-based fixedtime AIprotocols on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility in dairy cows. J. Reprod Dev., 60: 426-432.
García- Ispierto I., López- Gatius F., Bech - Sabat G., Santolaria P., Yániz J.L., Nogareda C., De Rensis F., López- Béjar M. (2007). Climate factors affecting conception rate of high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain. Theriogenology, 67: 1379-1385.
Garcia - Ispierto I., López- Helguera I., Martino A., López- Gatius F. (2012). Reproductive performance of anoestrous high-producing dairy cows improved by adding equine chorionic gonadotrophin toaprogesterone-based oestrous synchronizing protocol. Reprod Domest Anim., 47: 752-758.
Garcia - Ispierto I., Roselló M.A., De Rensis F., López- Gatius F. (2013). Afive-day progesterone plus e CG-based fixed-time AIprotocol improves fertility over spontaneous estrus in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress. J. Reprod. Dev., 59: 544-548.
Hanlon D.W., Williamson N.B., Steffert I.J., Witchell J.J., Pfeiffer D.U. (1997). Reinsertion ofaprogesterone-containing intravaginal device to synchronise returns to oestrus in dairy heifers. New Zeal. Vet. J., 45: 15-18.
Hanzen C.H., Bascon F., Theron L., López- Gatius F. (2007). Ovarian cysts in cattle Part 1: Definitions, symptoms and diagnostic. Ann. Med. Vet., 151: 247-256.
Hosmer D.W., Lemeshow S. (1989). Applied logistic regression. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 376 pp.
Inskeep E.K. (2004). Preovulatory, postovulatory, and postmaternal recognition effects of concentrations of progesterone on embryonic survival in the cow. J. Anim. Sci., 82 E-Suppl: E24-39.
Kasimanickam R., Day M.L., Rudolph J.S., Hall J.B., Whittier W.D. (2009). Two doses of prostaglandin improve pregnancy rates to timed-AIina5-d progesterone-based synchronization protocol in beef cows. Theriogenology, 71: 762-767.
Labèrnia J., López- Gatius F., Santolaria P., Hanzen C., Laurent Y., Houtain J.Y. (1998). Influence of calving season on the interactions among reproductive disorders of dairy cows. Anim. Sci., 67: 387-393.
Larson L.L., Ball P.J.H., (1992). Regulation of estrous cycles in dairy cattle: Areview. Theriogenology, 38: 255-267.
López- Gatius F. (2000). Site of semen deposition in cattle:areview. Theriogenology, 53: 1407-1414.
López- Gatius F. (2012). Factors ofanoninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. Areview. Theriogenology, 77: 1029-1041.
López- Gatius F., Camón-Urgel J. (1988). Increase in pregnancy rate in dairy cattle after preovulatory follicle palpation and deep cornual insemination. Theriogenology, 29: 1099-1103.
López- Gatius F., Camón-Urgel J. (1991). Confirmation of estrus rates by palpation per rectum of genital organs in normal repeat dairy cows. J. Vet. Med. Series A, 38: 553-556.
Lopez- Gatius F., Garcia - Ispierto I. (2010). Ultrasound and endocrine findings that help to assess the risk of late embryo/early foetal loss by non-infectious cause in dairy cattle. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 45(Suppl.3): 15-24.
López- Gatius F., Yániz J., Madriles - Helm D. (2003). Effects of body condition score and score change on the reproductive performance of dairy cows:ameta-analysis. Theriogenology, 59: 801-812.
López- Gatius F., Santolaria P., Mundet I., Yániz J.L. (2005). Walking activity at estrus and subsequent fertility in dairy cows. Theriogenology, 63: 1419-1429.
López- Gatius F., Mirzaei A., Santolaria P., Bech - Sàbat G., Nogareda C., García- Ispierto I., Hanzen Ch., Yániz J.L. (2008). Factors affecting the response to the specific treatment of several forms of clinical anestrus in high producing dairy cows. Theriogenology, 69: 1095-103.
López- Gatius F., López- Helguera I., De Rensis F., Garcia - Ispierto I. (2015). Effects of different five-day progesterone-based synchronization protocols on the estrous response and follicular/luteal dynamics in dairy cows. J. Reprod. Dev., 61: 465-471.
López- Helguera I., López- Gatius F., Garcia - Ispierto I. (2012). The influence of genital tract status in postpartum period on the subsequent reproductive performance in high producing dairy cows. Theriogenology, 77: 1334-1342.
Macmillan K.L. (2010). Recent advances in the synchronization of estrus and ovulation in dairy cows. J. Reprod. Dev., 56: 42-47.
Martinez M.F., Adams G.P., Bergfelt D.R., Kastelic J.P., Mapletoft R.J. (1999). Effect of LHor Gn RHon the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave in beef heifers. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 57: 23-33.
Mc Phee S.R., Doyle M.W., Davis I.F., Chamley W.A. (1983). Multiple use of progesterone releasing intravaginal devices for synchronization of oestrus and ovulation in cattle. Aus. Vet. J., 60: 40-44.
Muth - Spurlock A.M., Poole D.H., Whisnant C.S., (2016). Comparison of pregnancy rates in beef cattle afterafixed time AIwith once- or twice-used controlled internal drug release devices. Theriogenology, 85: 447-451.
Rhodes F.M., Mc Dougall S., Burke C.R., Verkerk G.A., Macmillan K.L. (2003). Invited review: Treatment of cows with an extended postpartum anestrous interval. J. Dairy Sci., 86: 1876-1894.
Ribeiro E.S., Monteiro A.P.A., Lima F.S., Ayres H., Bisinotto R.S., Favoreto M., Greco L.F., Marsola R.S., Thatcher W.W., Santos J.E.P. (2012). Effects of presynchronization and length of proestrus on fertility of grazing dairy cows subjected toa5-day timed artificial insemination protocol. J. Dairy Sci., 95: 2513-2522.
Roche J.R., Friggens N.C., Kay J.K., Fisher M.W., Stafford K.J., Berry D.P. (2009). Invited review: Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 5769-5801.
Roelofs J., López- Gatius F., Hunter R.H.F.,van Eerdenburg F.J.C.M., Hanzen C.H. (2010). When isacow in estrus? Clinical and practical aspects. Theriogenology, 74: 327-344.
Sa Filho O.G., Dias C.C., Lamb G. C., Vasconcelos J.L.M. (2010) . Progesterone-based estrous synchronization protocols in non-suckled and suckled primiparous Bos indicus beef cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 119: 9-16.
Stevenson J.S., Lamb G.C. (2016). Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows. J. Dairy Sci., 99: 5951-5964.
Vos P.L.A.M., Ambrose D.J. (2009). Postpartum anestrus in dairy cattle. Theriogenology, 71: 1333-1342.
Wiltbank M.C., Gümen A., Sartori R. (2002). Physiological classification of anovulatory conditions in cattle. Theriogenology, 57: 21-52.
Yániz J.L., Murugavel K., López- Gatius F. (2004). Recent developments in oestrous synchronization of postpartum dairy cows with and without ovarian disorders. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 39: 86-93.
Zuluaga J.F., Williams J.L. (2008). High-pressure steam sterilization of previously used CIDR inserts enhances the magnitude of the acute increase on circulating progesterone after insertion in cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 107: 30-35.