The efficacy of humic acid (HA) as an aflatoxin (AF) binder in broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin- contaminated feed from 1 to 42 days of age was assessed. A total of 200 birds were assigned to 20 pens, with 10 birds per pen. The following treatments (T) were applied: T1: basal diet (B); T2: B + AFB1 (100 μg/kg); T3: B + AFB1 (100 μg/kg) + HA (0.1%); T4: B +AFB1 (100 μg/kg) + HA (0.2%); T5: B + AFB1 (100 μg/kg) + HA (0.3%). Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates. Oxihumate was effective in diminishing the adverse effects caused by aflatoxin on body weight (BW) of broilers (P<0.05). Humic acid also showed protective effects against liver damage and some of the hematological and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity (P<0.05). The supplementation of HA also enhanced the humoral immunity by counteracting the aflatoxin contamination. Results indicated that HA could alleviate some of the toxic effects of aflatoxin in growing broilers. Humic acid (0.1 to 0.3%) might, therefore, prove to be beneficial in the management of aflatoxin-contaminated feedstuffs for poultry when used in combination with other mycotoxin management practices.
Abdel- Mageed M.A.A. (2012). Effect of dietary humic substances supplementation on performance and immunity of Japanese quail. Egypt. Poult. Sci., 32: 645-660.
Anjum M.A., Khan S.H., Sahota A.W., Sardar R. (2012). Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in commercial poultry feed and feed ingredients. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 22: 268-272.
Anonymous(2002). Some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene. Summary of data reported and evaluation. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum., 82: 590.
AOAC (2011). Official Methods of Analytical Chemists. 18th ed. Gaithersburg (MA): AOAC International.
Arafat R.Y., Khan S.H., Abbas G., Iqbal J. (2015). Effect of dietary humic acid via drinking water on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers. Am. J. Biol. Life Sci., 3: 26-30.
Bailey R.H., Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Buckley S.A., Rottinghaus G.E. (1998). Efficacy of various inorganic sorbents to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci., 77: 1623-1630.
Basmacioğlu H., Oğuz H., Ergul M., Col R., Birdane Y.O. (2005). Effect of dietary esterified glucomannan on performance, serum biochemistry and haematology in broilers exposed to aflatoxin. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 50: 31-39.
Bertuzzi T., Gualla A., Morlacchini M., Pietri A. (2013). Direct and indirect contamination with ochratoxin Aof ripened pork products. Food Control., 34: 79-83.
Bintvihok A., Kositcharoenkul S. (2006). Effect of dietary calcium propionate on performance, hepatic enzyme activities and aflatoxin residues in broilers fedadiet containing low levels of aflatoxin B1. Toxicon, 47: 41-46.
Bintvihok A., Thiengnin S., Doi K., Kumagai S. (2002). Residues of aflatoxin in the liver, muscle and eggs of domestic fowls. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 64: 1037-1039.
Coles E.H. (1974). Liver function. In: Veterinary Clinical Pathology. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, 2nd ed. pp. 202-215.
Cozzi R., Nicolai M., Perticone P., De Salvia R., Spuntarelli F. (1993). Desmutagenic activity of natural humic acids: Inhibition of mitomycin Cand maleic hydrazide mutagenicity. Mutat. Res., 299: 37-44.
Denli M., Blandon J.C., Guynot M.E., Salado S., Perez J.F. (2009). Effects of dietary Afla Detox on performance, serum biochemistry, histopathological changes, and aflatoxin residues in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1. Poultry Sci., 88: 1444-1451.
Dhanasekaran D., Annamalai P., Noorudin T. (2009). Evaluation of aflatoxicosis in hens fed with commercial poultry feed. Turkish J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 33: 385-391.
Edmonds M.S., Johal S., Moreland S. (2014). Effect of supplemental humic and butyric acid on performance and mortality in broilers raised under various environmental conditions. J. Appl. Poultry Res., 23: 260-267.
Elfarissi F., Pefferkorn E. (2000). Kaolinite/humic acid interaction in the presence of aluminiumion. Colloid. Surface A, 168: 1-12.
Fareed G., Khan S.H., Anjum M.A., Ahmed N. (2014). Determination of aflatoxin and ochratoxin in poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in humid semi-tropical environment. J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 1: 201-207.
FASS (2010). Guide for the care and use of agricultural animals in research and teaching. 3rd ed. Savoy, IL: FASS Publ.
Fiske C.H., Subba Row Y. (1925). The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. J. Biol. Chem., 66: 375-400.
Gabal M.A., Azzam A.H. (1998). Interaction of aflatoxin in the feed and immunization against selected infectious diseases in poultry. II. Effect on one-day-old layer chicks simultaneously vaccinated against Newcastle disease infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease. Avian Pathol., 27: 290-295.
Ghosh R.C., Chauhan H.V.S. (1991). Suppression of cell-mediated immunity by purified aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Vet. Immun. Immunopathol., 28: 165-172.
Hasan G., Toloei T., Habibi M. (2010). Efficacy of esterified glucomannan, sodium bentonite and humic acid to counteract experimental aflatoxicosis on antibody titers against Newcastle disease in broilers. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9: 4127-4131.
Hegazy S.M., Azzam A., Gabal M.A. (1991). Interaction of naturally occurring aflatoxins in poultry feed and immunization against fowl cholera. Poultry Sci., 70: 2425-2428.
Huff W.E., Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Phillips T.D. (1992). Efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to reduce the individual and combined toxicity of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A. Poultry Sci., 71: 64-69.
Hussain Z., Muhammad Z.K., Ahrar K., Ijaz J., Muhammad K.S., Sultan M., Muhammad R.A. (2010). Residues of aflatoxin B1 in broiler meat: Effect of age and dietary aflatoxin B1 levels. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48: 3304-3307.
Ibrahim I.K., Shareef A.M., Jubory K.M.T. (2000). Ameliorative effects of sodium bentonite on phagocytosis and Newcastle disease antibody formation in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis. Res. Vet. Sci., 69: 119-122.
Ipek H., Avci M., Iriadam M., Kaplan O., Denek N. (2008). Effects of humic acid on some hematological parameters, total antioxidant capacity and laying performance in Japanese quails. Arch. Geflugelkd., 72: S56-60.
Karaoglu M., Macit M., Esenbuga N., Durbag H., Turgut L., Bilgin Ö.C. (2004). Effect of supplemental humate at different levels on the growth performance, slaughter and carcass traits of broilers. Int. J. Poultry Sci., 3: 406-410.
Khan S.H., Shamsul H., Rozina S., Muhammad A.A. (2011). Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in poultry feed and feed ingredients in Pakistan. Int. J. Agro Vet. Med. Sci., 5: 30-42.
Klocking R. (1994). Humic substances as potential therapeutics. In: Humic substances in global environment: Implications for human health, Senesi T., Miano T.M. (eds). Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Kocabağli N., Alp M., Acar N., Kahraman R. (2002). The effects of dietary humate supplementation on broiler growth and carcass yield. Poultry Sci., 81: 227-230.
Kollist- Siigur K., Nielsen T., Grøn C., Hansen P.E., Helweg C., Jonassen K.E., Jørgensen O., Kirso U. (2001). Sorption of polycyclic aromatic compounds to humic and fulvic acid HPLCcolumn materials. J. Environ. Qual., 30: 526-537.
Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Huff W.E., Corrier D.E., Phillips T.D., Rottinghaus G.E. (1990 a). Efficacy ofahydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin. Poultry Sci., 69: 1078-1086.
Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Phillips T.D., Corrier D.E., Huff W.E. (1990 b). Diminution of aflatoxicosis in growing chickens by dietary addition ofahydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. Poultry Sci., 69: 727-735.
Madronová L., Kozler J., Cezíková J., Novák J., Janoš P. (2001). Humic acids from coal of the North-Bohemia coal field. III. Metal-binding properties of humic acids - measurements in a column arrangement. React. Func. Polym., 47: 119-123.
MAFF (1984). Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. In: Manual of veterinary investigation techniques, Davies E.T., Benson J.A. (eds). Reference Book 390, 3rd ed. 2: 10-20.
Magnoli A.P., Monge M.P., Miazzo R.D., Cavaglieri L.R., Magnoli C.E., Merkis C.I., Cristofolini A.L., Dalcero A.M., Chiacchiera S.M. (2011). Effect of low levels of aflatoxin B1 on performance, biochemical parameters, and aflatoxin B1 in broiler liver tissues in the presence of monensin and sodium bentonite. Poultry Sci., 90: 48-58.
Miazzo R., Rosa C.A.R., Carvalho E.C.Q., Magnoli C., Chiacchilera S.M., Palacio G., Saenz M., Kikot A., Basaldella E., Dalcero A. (2000). Efficacy of synthetic zeolite to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci., 79: 1-6.
Mirnawati Y.R., Marida Y. (2013). Effects of humic acid addition via drinking water on the performance of broilers fed diets containing fermented and non-fermented palm kernel cake. Arch. Zootech., 16: 41-53.
Moura M.N., Martín M.J., Burguillo F.J. (2007). Acomparative study of the adsorption of humic acid, fulvic acid and phenol onto Bacillus subtilis and activated sludge. J. Hazard Mater., 149: 42-48.
Nagaraju R., Reddy B.S.V., Gloridoss R., Suresh B.N., Ramesh C. (2014). Effect of dietary supplementation of humic acids on performance of broilers. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 84, 4.
Nanny M.A., Maza J.P. (2001). Noncovalent interactions between monoaromatic compounds and dissolved humic acids: Adeuterium NMR T1 relaxation study. Environ. Sci Technol., 35: 379-384.
National Research Council (NRC) (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
Neeley W.E., Classen K.O., Gruber M. (1985). Determination of serum aspartate aminotransferase with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate in the Technicon SMACand Du Pont aca compared and correlated with the IFCCrecommended method. Clin. Chem., 31: 139-142.
Nègre M., Schulten H.R., Gennari M., Vindrola D. (2001). Interaction of imidazolinone herbicides with soil humic acids. Experimental results and molecular modeling. J. Environ. Sci. Health B., 36: 107-125.
Oğuz H., Keçeci T., Birdane Y.O., Onder F., Kurtoğlu V. (2000). Effect of clinoptilolite on serum biochemical and haematological characters of broiler chickens during experimental aflatoxicosis. Res. Vet. Sci., 69: 89-93.
Oğuz H., Hadimli H.H., Kurtoğlu V., Erganiş O. (2003). Evaluation of humoral immunity of broilers during chronic aflatoxin (50 and 100 ppb) and clinoptilolite exposure. Rev. Med. Vet., 7: 483-486.
Ortatatli M., Ciftci K., Tuzcu M., Kaya A. (2002). The effects of aflatoxin on the reproductive system of roosters. Res. Vet. Sci., 72: 29-36.
Ozturk E., Ocak N., Coskun I., Turhan S., Erener G. (2010). Effects of humic substances supplementation provided through drinking water on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of broilers. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 94: 78-85.
Puschner B. (2002). Mycotoxins. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract., 32: 409-419.
Rath N.C., Huff W.E., Huff G.R. (2006). Effects of humic acid on broiler chickens. Poultry Sci., 85: 410-414.
Scheideler S.E. (1993). Effects of various types of aluminosilicates and aflatoxin B1 on aflatoxin toxicity, chick performance, and mineral status. Poutry Sci., 72: 282-288.
Schepetkin I.A., Khlebnikov A.I., Ah S.Y., Woo S.B., Jeong C.S., Klubachuk O.N., Kwon B.S. (2003). Characterization and biological activities of humic substances from mumie. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51: 5245-5254.
Sørensen L.K., Elbaek T.H. (2005). Determination of mycotoxins in bovine milk by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci., 820:183-196.
Steel R.G.D., Torrie J.H. (1984). Principles and procedures of statistics. International Student ed. Mc Graw-Hill, Tokyo, Japan.
Sur E., Celik I. (2003). Effects of aflatoxin B1 on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid phosphatase of the chicken. Brit. Poultry Sci., 44: 558-566.
Sur E., Celik I., Oznurlu Y., Aydin M.F., Oguz H., Kurtoglu V., Ozaydin T. (2011). Enzyme histochemical and serological investigations on the immune system from chickens treated in ovo with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Revue Méd. Vét., 162: 443-448.
Taklimi S.M.S.M., Ghahri H., Isakan M.A. (2012). Influence of different levels of humic acid and esterified glucomannan on growth performance and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Agr. Sci., 3: 663-668.
Tavčar - Kalcher G., Vrtač K., Pestevšek U., Vengust A. (2007). Validation of the procedure for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in animal liver using immunoaffinity columns and liquid chromatography with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Food Contr., 18:333-337.
Thayer S.G., Beard C.W. (1998). Serological procedure. Alaboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens. American Association of Avian Pathologist, Pennsylvania, 4th ed., pp. 255-258.
Tung H.T., Wyatt R.D., Thaxton P., Hamilton P.B. (1975). Concentrations of serum proteins during aflatoxicosis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 34: 320-326.
Van Rensburg C.J., Van Rensburg C.E.J., Van Ryssen J.B.J., Casey N.H., Rottinghaus G.E. (2006). In vitro and in vivo assessment of humic acid as an aflatoxin binder in broiler chickens. Poultry Sci., 85: 1576-1583.
Webster D. (1974). Estimation of albumin in serum. Clin. Chem. Acta., 53: 109.
Ye S-.Q., Lv X-.Z., Zhou A-.G. (2009). In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of sodium humate as an aflatoxin B1 adsorbent. Austr. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 3: 1296-1300.