Sense of smell and volatile aroma compounds and their role in the evaluation of the quality of products of animal origin – a review

Robert Gąsior 1  and Krzysztof Wojtycza 1
  • 1 Central Laboratory, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

The aim of this article is to examine how the sense of smell and aroma compounds influence the quality of food of animal origin, and to review gas chromatography-olfactometry methods of volatile substances analysis that can help to promote regional animal products. Smell and smell-inducing compounds play an important role in human life. People have made use of aromatic herbs and spices for ages. The classification of smells was developed by, among others, Aristotle, Linnaeus, Zwaardemaker, as well as Amoore, the creator of the stereochemical theory of olfaction. Smell is also of exceptional importance in a consumer’s evaluation of food quality. Achievements in the area of chromatography, mass spectrometry and olfactometry have contributed to the development of tests for the content of volatile compounds in food materials, e.g. milk, cheese or meat. Analysis of these compounds is more and more often applied to regional products that are commonly characterised by different olfactory properties. The study’s results of raw meat of different animal species show that nutria meat and mutton differ the most from others. Apart from genetic factors, meat composition depends on feeding method, quality and type of fodder, method of cutting, meat seasoning, pH and temperature of processing. Chromatographic and olfactometric tests on animal products, in conjunction with chemometrics, can contribute to the development of reliable characteristics and help to identify the products’ origin. These tests are becoming an inseparable part of the policy of promotion of regional products with specific taste and olfactory properties.

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