1 Department of Research Methodology and Statistics, University of Debrecen, Böszörményi Str. 138, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
2 Department of Pig Breeding and Horses, UTP University of Science and Technology, Mazowiecka 28,85-084 Bydgoszcz, Poland
3 Department of Pig Breeding and Horses, UTP University of Science and Technology, Mazowiecka 28, 85-084 Bydgoszcz, Poland
4 Department of Agriculture Economics, University of Debrecen, Böszörményi Str. 138, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
5 Department of Animal Breeding, University of Debrecen, Böszörményi Str. 138, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
6 Angela Soltesz’s research was supported by the European Union and the State of Hungary, cofinanced by the European Social Fund in the framework of TÁMOP-4.2.4.A/ 2-11/1-2012-0001 ‘National Excellence Program
The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of the productive lifetime (PLT) of sows kept on two farms, from the aspect of reasons for culling. The study was based on data from animals from two breeding farms in Hungary, using the data of 3493 crossbred Dutch Large White and Dutch Landrace sows (DLW × DL) between their first farrowing until the time of culling (2006 and 2012). For six years, the annual culling rate for both farms averaged 45%. The most frequent reasons for removal on both farms were reproductive problems (40%, 51%), leg problems (29%, 23%) and mortality (19%, 15%). There was a significant difference between the distributions of reasons for culling on the two farms (χ2=41.7, P≤0.001). The distributions of reasons for culling differed in three periods of sow breeding (Farm A: χ2=264.7, P≤0.001; Farm B: χ2=511.1, P≤0.001). The percentage of main removal reasons decreased, whereas the frequency of culling due to age increased. Using survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model), significant differences were identified between the PLT of sows culled due to reproductive problems (P≤0.001), leg problems (P≤0.001) and old age (P≤0.001). Reproductive problems (HR: 1.34, P≤0.001) and leg problems (HR: 1.39, P≤0.001) were higher and culling due to old age (HR: 0.44, P≤0.001) was lower on Farm A compared to Farm B. There were no significant differences between the two farms in terms of mortality (HR: 0.99, P=0.923). Overall, the results can be useful for breeders of crossbred (DLW × DL) sow populations in more accurately defining their culling systems.
Aasmundstad T., Olsen D., Sehested E., Vangen O. (2014). The genetic relationships between conformation assessment of gilts and sow production and longevity. Livest. Sci., 167: 3 3-40.
Andersen I.L., B øe K.E. (1999). Straw bedding or concrete floor for loose-housed pregnant sows: consequences for aggression, production and physical health. Acta Agric. Scand., Sect. A-Anim. Sci., 49: 190-195.
Anil S.S., Anil L., Deen J. (2008). Analysis of periparturient risk factors affecting sow longevity in breeding herds. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 88: 381-389.
Anil S.S., Anil L., Deen J. (2009). Effect of lameness on sow longevity. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 235: 734-738.
Boyle L., Leonard F.C., Lynch B., Brophy P. (1998). Sow culling patterns and sow welfare. Irish Vet. J., 51: 354-357.
Cador C., Pol F., Hamoniaux M., Dorenlor V., Eveno E., Guyomarc ’h C., Rose N. (2014). Risk factors associated with leg disorders of gestating sows in different group-housing systems: Across-sectional study in 108 farrow-to-finish farms in France. Prev. Vet. Med., 116: 102-110.
Calder ón D íaz J.A., Fahey A.G., Kil Bride A.L., Green L.E., Boyle L.A. (2013). Longitudinal study of the effect of rubber slat mats on locomotory ability, body, limb and claw lesions and dirtiness of loose housed sows. J. Anim. Sci., 91: 3940-3954.
Cameron R. (2012). Integumentary system: skin, hoof and claw. In: Zimmerman J., Karriker L., Ramirez A., Schwartz K., Stevenson G. (eds.), Diseases of Swine, Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, pp. 264-269.
D ’ Allaire S., Stein T.E., Leman A.D. (1987). Culling patterns in selected Minnesota swine breeding herds. Can. J. Vet. Res., 51: 506-512.de Jong E., Appeltant R., Cools A., Beek J., Boyen F., Chiers K., Maes D. (2014). Slaughterhouse examination of culled sows in commercial pig herds. Livest. Sci., 167: 362-369.
Dhliwayo M. (2007). Reasons for planned and unplanned culling in breeding sows:acase for the PIB (Pig Industry Board) farm in Zimbabwe. J. Sustain. Dev. Afr., 9: 70-77.
Engblom L., Lundeheim N., Dalin A.M., Andersson K. (2007). Sow removal in Swedish commercial herds. Livest. Sci., 106: 76-86.
Engblom L., Eliasson - Selling L., Lundeheim N., Belák K., Andersson K., Da -lin A.-M. (2008 a). Post mortem findings in sows and gilts euthanised or found dead inalarge Swedish herd. Acta Vet. Scand., 50: 25.
Engblom L., Lundeheim N., Strandberg E., Schneider M.del P., Dalin A-M., An -dersson K. (2008 b). Factors affecting length of productive life in Swedish commercial sows. J. Anim. Sci., 86: 432-441.
Fern àndezde Sevilla X., F àbrega E., Tibau J., Casellas J. (2008). Effect of leg conformation on survivability of Duroc, Landrace, and Large White sows. J. Anim. Sci., 86: 2392-2400.
Fern àndezde Sevilla X., F àbrega E., Tibau J., Casellas J. (2009). Competing risk analyses of longevity in Duroc sows withaspecial emphasis on leg conformation. Animal, 3: 446-453.
Heinonen M., Oravainen J., Orro T., Seppa- Lassila L., Ala- Kurikka E., Viro -lainen J., Tast A., Peltoniemi O.A.T. (2006). Lameness and fertility of sows and gilts in randomly selected loose-housed herds in Finland. Vet. Rec., 159: 383-387.
Hoge M.D., Bates R.O. (2011). Developmental factors that influence sow longevity. J. Anim. Sci., 89: 1238-1245.
Huirne R., Dijkhuizen A., Renkema J. (1991). Economic optimization of sow replacement decisions on the personal computer by method of stochastic dynamic programming. Livest. Prod. Sci., 28: 331-347.
Hungarian Swine Nutrition Requirements (2003). http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid= A0300044.FVM Karg H., Bilkei G. (2002). Causes of sow mortality in Hungarian indoor and outdoor pig production units. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr., 115: 366-368.
Knauer M., Karriker L.A., Baas T.J., Johnson C., Stalder K.J. (2007). Accuracy of sow culling classifications reported by lay personnel on commercial swine farms. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 231: 433-436.
Knecht D., Duzi ński K. (2014). The effect of parity and date of service on the reproductive performance of Polish Large White × Polish Landrace (PLW × PL) crossbred sows. Ann. Anim. Sci., 14: 69-79.
Maia R.P., Madsen P., Labouriau R. (2014). Multivariate survival mixed models for genetic analysis of longevity traits. J. Appl. Stat., 41: 1286-1306.
Masaka L., Sungirai M., Nyamukanza C., Bhondai C. (2014). Sow removal inacommercial pig herd in Zimbabwe. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod., 46: 725-731.
Meyer D., Zeileis A., Hornik K. (2006). The strucplot framework: visualizing multi-way contingency tables with vcd. J. Stat. Soft., 17: 1-48.
Mondal S.K., De U.K., Das G.K., Powde A.M., Verma A.K. (2012). Pattern of mortality of crossbred pigs in an organized swine production farm. J. Livest. Sci., 3: 37-44.
Nenadic O., Greenacre M. (2007). Correspondence analysis in R, with two- and three-dimensional graphics: The ca package. J. Stat. Soft., 20: 1-13.
Nikkil ä M.T., Stalder K.J., Mote B.E., Rothschild M.F., Gunsett F.C., Johnson A.K., Karriker L.A., Boggess M.V., Serenius T.V. (2013). Genetic associations for gilt growth, compositional, and structural soundness traits with sow longevity and lifetime reproductive performance. J. Anim. Sci., 91: 1570-1579.
Pluym L., Van Nuffel A., Dewulf J., Cools A., Vangroenweghe F., Van Hoore-beke S., Maes D. (2011). Prevalence and risk factors of claw lesions and lameness in pregnant sows in two types of group housing. Vet. Med.-Czech,, 56: 101-109.
R Core Team (2014). R: Alanguage and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URLhttp://www.R-project.org/
Rodriguez- Zas S.L., Southey B.R., Knox R.V., Connor J.F., Lowe J.F., Ros-kamp B.J. (2003). Bioeconomic evaluation of sow longevity and profitability. J. Anim. Sci., 81: 2915-2922.
Roongsitthichai A., Olanratmanee E., Koonjaenak S., Techakumphu M., Tum-maruk P. (2010). The removal of gilts and primiparous sows from swine breeding herds in Thailand. Proc. 21st IPVS Congress, Vancouver, Canada, p. 795.
Sasaki Y., Koketsu Y. (2010). Culling intervals and culling risks in four stages of the reproductive life of first service and reserviced female pigs in commercial herds. Theriogenology, 73: 587-594.
Seddon Y., Brown J. (2014). Early detection and interventions for reducing lameness in gestating sows. Proc. 33rd Centralia Swine Research Update. Kirkton Ontario II, pp. 48-53.
Segura - Correa J.C., Ek - Mex E., Alzina - L ópez A., Segura - Correa V.M. (2011). Frequency of removal reasons of sows in Southeastern Mexico. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 43: 1583-1588.
Serenius T., Stalder K.J. (2006). Selection for sow longevity. J. Anim. Sci., 84: E166-E171.
Sobczy ńska M., Blicharski T., Tyra M. (2013). Relationships between longevity, lifetime productivity, carcass traits and conformation in Polish maternal pig breeds. J. Anim. Breed. Genet., 130: 361-371.
Sobczy ńska M., Blicharski T., Tyra M. (2014). Acanonical correlation analysis of relationships between growth, compositional traits and longevity, lifetime productivity and efficiency in Polish Landrace sows. Ann. Anim. Sci., 14: 257-270.