We researched the influence of two methods of housing primiparous cows on meeting estimated energy requirements. In herd A primiparous cows were kept in a separate technological group during the whole lactation period, whereas in herd B they were kept in technological groups together with multigravid cows. The whole herd A consisted of 400 cows, where the average annual yield was 10,200 kg of milk per cow. Herd B consisted of 250 cows, where the average annual yield was 8,500 kg of milk per cow. In 2010 and 2011 there were 200 primiparous cows in herd A, whereas in herd B there were 165 primiparous cows. The milk yield for 100 and 305 days of lactation was analysed. Meeting the cows’ demand for energy was determined on the basis of the percentage of protein in milk. In both herds primiparous cows were divided into milk yield classes for 100 days of lactation. Both the trend and the amount of variation in the content of protein in milk were found to be identical in both herds. The content of protein in milk increased as the milk yield decreased. This regularity could be observed at both lactation stages under analysis and the differences between the classes were statistically confirmed. During the first 100 days of lactation the estimated energy deficit comprised a much larger percentage of the cows than in the 305-day lactation period. The system of maintenance of primiparous cows (separately or together with multigravid cows) was not found to influence the milk yield or the estimated demand for energy
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Beerda B., Ouweltjes W., Šebek L.B.J., Windig J.J., Veerkamp R.F. (2007). Effects of genotype by environment interactions on milk yield, energy balance, and protein balance. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 219-228.
Bilik K., Łopuszańska- Rusek M. (2009). Effect of adding fibrolytic enzymes to periparturient and early lactation dairy cow diets on production parameters. Ann. Anim. Sci., 9: 401-413.Bilik K., Łopuszańska- Rusek M. (2010). Effect of adding fibrolytic enzymes to dairy cow rations on digestive activity in the rumen. Ann. Anim. Sci., 10: 127-137.
Bossen D., Weisbjerg M.R., Munksgaard L., Højsgaard S. (2009). Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation. Liv. Sci., 126: 252-272.
Brade E., Brade W. (2010). Milchharnstoff als Indikator nutzen. Neue Landwirtschaft., 5: 6-68.
Brade E., Brade W. (2011). Ruhe bewahren. Neue Landwirtschaft., 1: 64-66.
Brun - Lafleur L., Delaby L., Husson F., Faverdin P. (2010). Predicting energy × protein interaction on milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 4128-4143.
Drackley J.K. (1999). Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier. J. Dairy Sci., 82: 2259-2273.
Engelhard T. (2009). Ein Mosaik aus vielen Steinchen. Neue Landwirtschaft., 4: 95-98.
Harabasz J.S., Ceranka B. (1977). Analysis of variance for orthogonal factorial experiments. Rocz. AR Poznań, Algor. Biom. Stat., 6.
Heuer C., Van Straalen W.M., Schukken Y.H., Dirkzwager A., Noordhui - zen J.P.T.M. (2000). Prediction of energy balance inahigh yielding dairy herd in early lactation: model development and precision. Liv. Prod. Sci., 65: 91-105.
Hoover W.H., Stokes S.R. (1991). Balancing carbohydrates and protein for optimum rumen microbial yield. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3630-3644.
Kolb E. (1987). Vom Leben und Verhalten unserer Haustiere. Leipzig, GDR, S. Hirzel Verlag. 8 ed., 288 pp.
Krzyżewski J., Strzałkowska N., Ryniewicz Z. (1997). Genetic and environmental factors affecting protein content in cow milk. Prz. Hod., 8: 8-11.
Morel I., Collomb M., Van Dorland A., Bruckmaier R. (2010). Einfluss eines Energiedefizits auf die Zusammensetzung der Milch. Agrarforschung Schweiz, 1: 66-73.
Nowak W., Kruczyńska H., Grochowska S. (2003). The effect of fibrolytic enzymes on dry matter, ADFand NDFruminal disappearance and intestinal digestibility. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 48: 191-196.
Osięgłowski S., Strzetelski J. (2006). Effect of the period of feeding higher energy diets to prepartum cows on early-lactation milk yield. Pol. J. Nat. Sci., Suppl., 3: 211-217.
Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers - Testing Region in Poznań. (2011, 2012, 2013). Breeding results for 2010, 2011 and 2012. Poznań.
Reklewski Z. (2008). Intensive and organic milk production systems. Prz. Hod., 6: 1-5.
Schei I., Volden H., Bævre L. (2005). Effects of energy balance and metabolizable protein level on tissue mobilization and milk performance of dairy cows in early lactation. Liv. Prod. Sci., 95: 35-47.
Stevenson J.S. (2001). Reproductive management of dairy cows in high milk producing herds. J. Dairy Sci., 84 (E. Suppl.): E128-E143.
Strzetelski J.A., Osięgłowski S., Kowalski Z.M., Kowalczyk J., Borowiec F., Sosin E. (2008). Effect of pre- and-post-calving concentrate allocation and of starch source on feed intake, blood metabolite profiles and performance of transition cows. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 17: 473-490.
Winnicki S., Notecki C., Gąsiorowski S., Namyślak Ł. (2012). Technological and technical solutions of cowsheds used in Wielkopolska. In: Problems of intensification of livestock production including environmental protection and alternative energy production (monograph). W. Romaniuk (ed). ITP, Warszawa, pp. 197-201.
Ziemiński R., Juszczak J. (1997). Milk urea level as an indicator of protein to energy ratio in feeding rations for dairy cows. Post. Nauk Roln., 3: 73-82.