Until recently, the genus Oesophagostomum was the only Oesophagostominae occurring commonly in both domestic and wild suids of Europe. A few years ago, an alien oesophagostomin nematode Bourgelatia diducta was recorded in the wild boar population from southern Poland, and Vietnamese potbellied pig was blamed for introduction of this Far Eastern parasite. Apart from wild boars kept in captivity for meat production purposes, Vietnamese potbellied pigs can be raised in extensive, organic, or especially agrotourism farms, which constitutes an infection hazard to domestic pigs. The aim of the research was to determine and compare species composition of Oesophagostominae in wild boars from the natural environment, and in domestic pigs from extensively managed farms, located in the area where B. diducta was previously noted for the first time. A postmortem examination of the large intestines of 25 wild boars and 20 domestic pigs, each from different smallholdings, was conducted in the autumn and winter season of 2010- 2011. Oesophagostomum dentatum with coexisting O. quadrispinulatum were ascertained in swine, whereas the sole Bourgelatia diducta was recorded in wild boars. All the parasites occurred commonly in their hosts, with the prevalence of 80, 50 and 32% for O. dentatum, O. quadrispinulatum and B. diducta, respectively. Mean number of worms was many-fold higher in pigs, reaching 181 (range 1 to 2500) specimens in individual host, versus 3 (1-6) parasites in wild boars. A presumable influence of the alien nematode species on the European wild boar population as well as the potential for further spread of the parasite are elucidated
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