Backfat Fatty Acid Profile of Crossbred Pigs Fed a Diet Supplemented with Conjugated Linoleic acid or Sunflower Oil
The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of feeding pigs with different levels of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or sunflower oil (SFO) on the backfat fatty acid profile. The subjects of research were 60 crossbred gilts divided into 6 groups, which were fed different levels of conjugated linoleic acid or sunflower oil (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, respectively). All fatteners were kept and fed under standardized conditions. Animals were slaughtered at 95 kg of body weight. Fatty acid profile was determined in samples of backfat from each animal using gas chromatography. The significance of differences between groups was verified by Duncan's test. In the present study, a beneficial effect of adding CLA was that it reduced saturated fatty acids and increased unsaturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue (backfat) of pigs as compared to fatteners receiving SFO. The amount of monounsaturated fatty acids in the backfat decreased with increasing amounts of CLA or SFO. Modifying the fatty acid profile of pig backfat through addition of CLA or SFO would be beneficial to the health of consumers because relatively large amounts of fat pork, including backfat, are added to the sausages.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Azain M. J., Hausman D. B., Sisk M. B., Flatt W. P., Jewell D. E. (2000). Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reduces rat adipose tissue cell size rather than cell number. J. Nutr., 130 (6): 1548-1554.
Bassaganya-Riera J., Hontecillas R., Beitz D. C. (2002). Colonic anti-inflammatory mechanisms of conjugated linoleic acid. Clinic. Nutr., 21 (6): 451-459.
Bawa S. (2003). An update on beneficial role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in modulating human health: mechanisms of action. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 12/53 (3): 3-14.
Bee G. (2000). Dietary conjugated linoleic acids alter adipose tissue and milk lipids of pregnant and lactating sows. J. Nutr., 130 (9): 2292-2298.
Bolton-Smith C., Woodward M., Smith W. C. S., Tunstall-Pedoe H. (1991). Dietary and non dietary predictors of serum total HDL cholesterol in men and women: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study. Int. J. Epidemiol., 20, 95-104.
Grześkowiak E., Borzuta K., Tratwal Z. (2002). Effect of feeding pigs with concentrates supplemented with linseeds on fatty acid profile in backfat. Ann. Anim. Sci. Suppl., 2: 289-292.
Hoffman L. C., Kroucamp M., Manley M. (2007). Meat quality characteristic of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis). 3: Fatty acid composition as influenced by age, gender and production region. Meat Sci., 76: 768-773.
Jiang Z. Y., Zhong W.J, Zheng C. T., Lin Y. C., Yang L., Jiang S. Q. (2010). Conjugated linoleic acid differentially regulates fat deposition in backfat and longissimus muscle of finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 88: 1694-1705.
Koczanowski J., Migdał W., Orzechowska B. (2004). The effect of backfat thickness and fattener's sex on fatty acid composition of backfat (in Polish). Pr. Mat. Zoot., Zesz. Spec., 15: 238-239.
Kritchevsky D. (2000). Antimutagenic and some other effects of conjugated linoleic acid. Brit. J. Nutr., 83 (5): 459-465.
Larsen S. T., Wiegand B. R., Parrish F. C., Jr., Swan J. E., Sparks J. C. (2009). Dietary conjugated linoleic acid changes belly and bacon quality from pigs fed varied lipid sources. J. Anim. Sci., 87: 285-295.
Migdał W., Borowiec F., Koczanowski J. (2001). The fatty acids of inner and outer backfat of crossbred fatteners (in Polish). Zesz. Nauk. AR we Wrocławiu, Konf. XXXI, nr 405: 175-180.
Migdał W., Koczanowski J., Borowiec F., Furgał K., Barteczko J., Klocek Cz., Tuz R., Gardzińska A., Kurek M. (1999). Effect of feeding on the fatty acid compositon of loin and backfat in fatteners (in Polish). Zesz. Nauk. AR w Krakowie, Sesja Nauk. Genetyczne i środowiskowe problemy w hodowli trzody chlewnej, Kraków, 28 września, Zesz. 67: 199-207.
Müller S., Reichardt W., Hartung H., Eckert B. (2003). Analyse der Fettsäurenzusammensetzung des Rohfettes von Prüffutter für Schweine (Kurzmitteilung). Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf, 46: 273-276.
Ostrowska E., Cross R. F., Muralitharan M., Bauman D. E., Dunshea F. R. (2003). Dietary conjugated linoleic acid differentially alters fatty acid composition and increases conjugated linoleic acid content in porcine adipose tissue. Brit. J. Nutr., 90 (5): 915-928.
Pieszka M., Paściak P., Barowicz T., Wojtysiak D., Pustkowiak H., Migdał W. (2004). Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) addition to the diet on composition of fatty acids and lipids in pig blood. Ann. Anim. Sci., Suppl. 2: 165-170.
Pieszka M., Paściak P., Wojtysiak D., Barowicz T., Migdał W. (2003). The impact of different CLA level in fodder on the results of growth performance of PLW pigs (in Polish). Konf. Nauk.: Prace genetyczno-hodowlane nad świniami ras rodzimych, Poznań, 18-19 listopad 2003.
Raj S., Skiba G., Weremko D., Fandrejewski H., Migdał W., Borowiec F. (2004). Fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi muscle in pigs as affected by breed and body weight (in Polish). Pr. Mat. Zoot., Zesz. Spec., 15: 245-246.
Stangl G. I., Mueller H., Kirchgessner M. (1999). Conjugated linoleic acid effects on circulating hormones, metabolites and lipoproteins, and its proportion in fasting serum and erythrocyte membranes of swine. Europ. J. Nutr., 38 (6): 271-277.
Statistica 8.0 PL (2008). StatSoft Polska
Thiel-Cooper R. L., Parrish F. C., Sparks J. C., Wiegand B. R., Ewan R. C. (2001). Conjugated linoleic acid changes swine performance and carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci., 79 (7): 1821-1828.
Tischendorf F., Schone F., Kirchheim U., Jahreis G. (2002). Influence of a conjugated linoleic acid mixture on growth, organ weights, carcass traits and meat quality in growing pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 86 (3-4): 117-128.
Urbańczyk J., Świątkiewicz M., Hanczakowska E., Siemińska M. (2002). Effect of various protein feeds on carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid composition of backfat of gilts and barrows. Ann. Anim. Sci., Suppl., 2: 277-281.
Walkiewicz A., Wielbo E., Matyka S., Babicz M., Dziubak A., Tochman L. (2001). Effect of pig somatic development on a cholesterol content and fatty acid composition in pork (in Polish). Zesz. Nauk. AR we Wrocławiu, Konf. XXXI, 405: 255-261.
Wasilewski P. D., Nowachowicz J., Michalska G., Bucek T., Lynch B., Mullen A. M. (2011). Fatty acid profile of Longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred pigs fed with addition of conjugated linoleic acid or sunflower oil. Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf, 54, 1: 61-68.
Wasilewski P. D., Nowachowicz J., Michalska G., Lynch B., Mullen A. M. (2006). The impact of addition of conjugated linoleic acid on chemical composition of Longissimus dorsi muscle and meat content of pigs. Anim. Sci., 1: 190-191.
Weber T. E., Schinckel A. P., Houseknecht K. L., Richert B. T. (2001). Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and dietary antibiotics as growth promotants in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 79 (10): 2542-2549.
White H. M., Richert B. T., Radcliffe J. S., Schinckel A. P., Burgess J. R., Koser S. L., Donkin S. S., Latour M. A. (2009). Feeding conjugated linoleic acid partially recovers carcass quality in pigs fed dried corn distillers grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci., 87:157-166.
Wood J. D., Richardson R. I., Nute G.R, Fisher A.V, Campo M. M., Kasapidou E., Sheard P. R., Enser M. (2003). Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: a review. Meat Sci., 66: 21-32.
Xiccato G., Trocino A. (2003). Role of dietary lipid on digestive physiology, immune system and growth in rabbits. Cost 848, Agric. Biotechnol., pp. 239-244.