Effect of Sex Ratio in the Litter in Which Polish Large White and Polish Landrace Sows were Born on the Number of Piglets Born and Reared
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex ratio in the litter in which Polish Large White (PLW) and Polish Landrace (PL) sows were born on the number of piglets born and reared to 21 days of age. Results obtained in nucleus herds from one breeding region were analysed. A total of 518 multiparous sows (179 PLW and 339 PL) were evaluated based on data from their litters (790 PLW and 1540 PL litters). The proportion of females in the litter in which the sow was born served as a basis for dividing the females into groups: group 1 <40%, group 2 - 40-50%, group 3 - 50-60%, group 4 - 60-70%, group 5 >70%. Significant differences in the average number of piglets born were found between the groups for PLW sows; compared to sows from groups 1, 2 and 3, females from group 5 gave birth to 8.0% (P≤0.05), 9.4% (P≤0.01) and 6.6% more piglets (P≤0.01), respectively, and compared to sows from group 2, those from group 4 gave birth to 5.1% more piglets (P≤0.05). The average number of piglets born and reared to 21 days by PL sows did not differ significantly between groups. The greater the proportion of females in the litter in which the PLW sow was born, the greater the preweaning mortality of piglets: 0.79, 0.87, 0.99, 1.02 and 1.24 piglets in groups 1 to 5, respectively. Preweaning mortality of PL piglets (0.93, 0.89, 0.81, 0.76 and 0.65 in groups 1 to 5, respectively) decreased with increasing proportion of females in the litter of origin and was lower than that of PLW piglets. It seems appropriate to account for the sex ratio of the litter in which the gilts were born when selecting them as mothers of the next generation as part of herd replacement; this parameter may improve fertility and production efficiency.
Drickamer L. C., Arthur R. D., Rosenthal T. L. (1997). Conception failure in swine: importance of the sex ratio of a female's birth litter and tests of other factors. J. Anim. Sci., 75: 2192-2196.
Drickamer L. C., Rosenthal T. L., Arthur R. D. (1999). Factors affecting the number of teats in pigs. J. Reprod. Fertil., 115: 97-100.
Eckert R., Żak G. (2011). Results of performance tested gilts. Report on pig breeding in Poland in 2010. Kraków, XXIX: 34-44.
Foxcroft G. R., Dixon W. T., Dyck M. K., Novak S., Harding J. C., Almeida F. C. (2009). Prenatal programming of postnatal development in the pig. Soc. Reprod. Fertil., Suppl., 66: 213-231.
Foxcroft G. R., Dixon W. T., Novak S., Putman C. T., Town S. C., Vinsky M. D. (2006). The biological basis for prenatal programming of postnatal performance in pigs. J. Anim. Sci., Suppl., 84: E105-112.
Górecki T. (2003). Sex ratio in litters of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica Linnaeus, 1758). Biol. Lett., 40: 111-118.
Górecki T., Kościński K. (2003). Offspring sex ratio in domestic goat (Capra hircus). Arch. Tierzucht., 46: 277-284.
Hotchkiss A. K., Lambright C. S., Ostby J. S., Parks-Saldutti L., Vandenbergh J. G., Gray L. E. Jr. (2007). Prenatal testosterone exposure permanently masculinizes anogenital distance, nipple development, and reproductive tract morphology in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol. Sci., 96: 335-345.
Huehn H., Tuchscherer A., Breite L., Grodzycki M., Huehn U. (2002). Influence of base litter sex ratio of gilts on their subsequent reproductive performances. Zuchtungskunde 74: 56-69.
Hurd P. L., Bailey A. A., Gongal P. A., Yan R. H., Greer J. J., Pagliardini S. (2008). Intrauterine position effects on anogenital distance and digit ratio in male and female mice. Archiv. Sexual Behav., 37: 9-18.
Orzechowska B., Mucha A. (2011). Results of reproductive performance of breeding sows. Report on pig breeding in Poland in 2010. Kraków, XXIX: 3-18.
Orzechowska B., Tyra M., Mucha A. (2002). Reproductive performance of sows from litters of various sex ratio. Ann. Anim. Sci., 2: 155-159.
Orzechowska B., Tyra M., Mucha A. (2011). Evaluation of pig breeding value using the BLUP method. Reproductive performance. Kraków, VII: 1, 3-6.
Owsianny J., Wejksza D., Czarnecki R. (1991). Reproductiveness of gilts originated from litters with the different participation of young boars. Abstr. 42nd Ann. Meet. EAAP, 8-12.09.1991, Berlin, 2, p. 473.
Rekiel A., Więcek J., Wojtasik M., Kulisiewicz J., Batorska M. (2010). The internal environment and reproduction in multifetal species (in Polish). Rocz. Nauk. Zoot., Monogr. Rozpr., 44: 79-88.
Rekiel A., Wojtasik M. (2010). Sex ratio in populations in terms of maximization of reproductive success (in Polish). Rocz. Nauk. Zoot., Monogr. Rozpr., 44: 113-126.
Rohde Parfet K. A., Ganjam V. K., Lamberson W.R, Rieke A. R., vom Saal F. S., Day B. N. (1990 a). Intrauterine position effects in female swine: subsequent reproductive performance, and social and sexual behavior. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 26, 4: 349-362.
Rohde Parfet K. A., Lamberson W. R., Rieke A. R., Centlez T. C., Ganjam V. K., vom Saal F. S., Day B. N. (1990 b). Intrauterine position effects in male and female swine subsequent survivability, growth rate, morphology and semen characteristics. J. Anim. Sci., 68, 1: 179-185.
Ryan B. C., Vandenbergh J. G. (2002). Intrauterine position effects. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 26: 665-678.
Salazar-Martinez E., Romano-Riquer P., Yanez-Marquez E., Longnecker M. P., Hernandez-Avila M. (2004). Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Environ. Health, 3, p. 8.
SPSS 2009. User's Guide 12.0. SPSS Inc.
Stasiak A. (1996). Interdependence between sexual activity of gilts during oestrus, development of reproductive organs, and potential and actual fertility (in Polish). Rozpr. Nauk. Wyd. AR Lublin.
Toro M. A., Fernández A., García-Cortés L. A., Rodrigáñez J., Silió L. (2006). Sex ratio variation in Iberian pigs. Genetics, 173: 911-917.
Vandenbergh J. G. (2003). Prenatal hormone exposure and sexual variation. Am. Scientist, 91: 218-225.
Walkiewicz A., Babicz M., Kasprzyk A., Dziura J. (2000). Analysis of piglet sex distribution in litters from PL breeding sows and the relationship between litter traits and reproductive performance of gilts reared. Ann. UMCS, sectio EE Zootech., 18: 61-68.
Walkiewicz A., Stasiak A. (1988). Variation in uniformity of litters from breeding sows of the Puławska and Polish Large White breeds (in Polish). Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol., 335: 135-141.
Weiss B. (2006). Anogenital Distance: Defining "Normal". Environ. Health Perspect., 114, p. 399.