Do chronological age and selected socio-demographic factors affect quality of life in females with breast cancer?

Open access

Do chronological age and selected socio-demographic factors affect quality of life in females with breast cancer?

The main aim of this study is to determine whether chronological age and selected socio-demographic factors affect quality of life in females with breast cancer. The sample group consisted of 145 females between 32.0 and 84.4 years of age, after radical surgery treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and undergoing hormonotherapy. The results indicate no significant differences between individuals varied by chronological age, and by place of residence. The time elapsed since the diagnosis was a significant differentiating factor in terms of the self-reported extent of positive emotions, cognitive problems and sexual functioning. Higher educated females were more inclined to social avoidance and more severely affected by fatigue - those with partners more so than single ones. The distress related to the disease and its treatment degrades the patients' quality of life so severely that other factors, such as socio-demographic, chronological age or period since diagnosis, do not play as an important role in a subjective evaluation of quality of life. One needs to be cognizant of the variety of coexisting factors, including psychological and characterological, that contribute to the quality of life evaluation.

Andrykowski M. A., S. L. Currun, J. L. Studts, L. Cunningham, J. S. Carpenter, et al., 1996, Psychosocial Adjustment and Quality of Life in Women with Breast Cancer and Benign Breast Problems: A Controlled Comparison, J. Clin. Epidemiol., 49, 827-34

Antoni M. H., J. M. Lehman, K. M. Kilbourn, A. E. Boyers, J. L. Culver, et al., 2001, Cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention decreases the prevalence of depression and enhances benefit finding among women under treatment for early-stage breast cancer, Health Psychol., 20, 20-32

Arndt V., T. Stürmer, Ch. Stegmaier, H. Ziegler, G. Dhom, et al., 2001, Socio-demographic factors, health behavior and latestage diagnosis of breast cancer in Germany: A population-based study, J. Clin. Epidemiol., 54, 719-27

Avis N. E., S. F. Assmann, H. M. Kravitz, P. A. Ganz, M. Ory, 2004, Quality of life in diverse groups of midlife women: Assessing the influence of menopause, health status and psychosocial and demographic factors, Qual. Life Res., 13, 933-36

Avis N. E., K. W. Smith, S. McGraw, R. G. Smith, V. M. Petronis, et al., 2005, Assessing quality of life in adult cancer survivors, Qual. Life Res., 14, 1007-23

Barraclough J., 1997, Rak i emocje, Wyd. Med. Sanmedica, Warszawa, pp. 53-55

Ben-Zur H., O. Gilbar, S. Lev, 2001, Coping with Breast Cancer: Patient, Spouse, and Dyad Models, Psychosom. Med., 63, 32-39

Brissette I., M. F. Scheier, Ch.S. Carver, 2002, The Role of Optimism in Social Network Development, Coping, and Psychological Adjustment During a Life Transition, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 82, 102-11

Carver C. S., S. D. Harris, J. M. Lehman, L. A. Durel, M. H. Antoni, et al., 2000a, How important is the perception of personal control? Studies of early stage breast cancer patients, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., 26, 139-50

Carver C. S., B. Meyer, M. H. Antoni, 2000b, Responsiveness to threats and incentives, expectancy of recurrence, and distress and disengagement: Moderator effects in women with early state breast cancer, J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 68, 965-87

Carver C. S., R. G. Smith, V. M. Petronis, M. H. Antoni, 2006, Quality of life among longterm survivors of breast cancer: Different types of antecedents predict different classes of outcomes, Psycho-Oncology, 15, 749-58

Colussi A. M., L. Mazer, D. Candotto, M. De Biasi, L. De Lorenzi, et al., 2001, The elderly cancer patient: A nursing perspective, Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol., 39, 235-45

Czapiński J., 1992, Psychologia szczęścia: przegląd badań teorii cebulowej, Akademos, Warszawa

De Walden- Gałuszko K., M. Majkowicz, 1994, Jakość życia w chorobie nowotworowej, Wyd. Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk

Engel J., J. Kerr, A. Schlesinger-Raab, H. Sauer, D. Hölzel, 2004, Quality of Life Following Breast-Conserving Therapy or Mastectomy: Results of a 5-Year Prospective Study, Breast J., 10, 223-31

Ferrell B. R., 1996, Humanizing the Experience of Pain and Illness, [in:] Suffering, B. R. Ferrell (ed.), Jones and Bartlett, London, pp. 211-21

Gotay C. C., E. L. Korn, M. S. McCabe, T. D. Moore, B. D. Cheson, 1992, Quality of life assessment in cancer treatment protocols: Research issues in protocol development, J. Natl. Cancer I., 84, 575-79

Grygorczuk A., 2008, Pojęcie stresu w medycynie i psychologii, Psychiatria, 5, 111-15

Guglas N., J. Mackiewicz, P. Pawlik, W. Cichy, 2007, Aspekty psychologiczne raka piersi u kobiet w okresie menopauzy, Prz. Menopauz., 1, 19-22

Jassem J., 1998, Rak sutka, Wyd. Med. Springer PWN, Warszawa

Kaczmarek M., 2004, The midlife well-being, gender and marital status, Prz. Antropol. - Anthropol. Rev., 67, 57-71

Kravdal Ø., 2002, A cancer survival model that takes sociodemographic variations in "normal" mortality into account: comparison with other models, J. Epidemiol. Commun. Health, 56, 309-18

Krebs E. E., B. C. Taylor, J. A. Cauley, K. L. Stone, P. J. Bowman, et al., 2006, Measures of Adiposity and Risk of Breast Cancer in Older Postmenopausal Women, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 54, 63-69

Majkowicz M., K. De Walden-Gałuszko, I. Trzebiatowska, A. Kopacz, A. Domaradz-ka-Woźniak, 1994, Ocena jakości życia u kobiet z nowotworem gruczołu piersiowego w różnych stadiach choroby, Nowotwory, 44, 86-91

Majkowicz M., 2000, Problemy i perspektywy oceny jakości życia w chorobie nowotworowej, Psychoonkologia, Bibl. Psychiatrii Polskiej, Kraków, 141-48

Manjer J., G. Berglund, L. Bondesson, J. P. Garne, L. Janzon, et al., 2000, Intraurban differences in breast cancer mortality: A study from the city of Malmö in Sweden, J. Epidemiol. Commun. Health, 54, 279-85

Mika K. A., 1984, Psychologia społeczna, Wyd. Nauk. PWN, Warszawa

Miniszewska J., B. Chrystowska-Jabłońska, 2002, Strategie radzenia sobie z chorobą nowotworową a jakość życia, Psychoonkologia, 6, 89-94

Northouse L., T. Kershaw, D. Mood, A. Schafenacker, 2005, Effects of a family intervention on the quality of life of women with recurrent breast cancer and their family caregivers, Psycho-Oncology, 14, 478-91

Nowicki A., B. Rządkowska, 2005, Depresja i lęk u chorych z nowotworami złośliwymi, W spółcz. Onkol., 9, 396-403

Nowicki A., M. Nikiel, 2006, Operacje odtwórcze piersi, ocena satysfakcji pacjentek, Współcz. Onkol., 10, 45-50

Osoba D., M-A. Hsu, C. Copley-Merriman J. Coombs, F. R. Johnson, et al., 2006, Stated preferences of patients with cancer for healthrelated quality of life (HRQOL) domains during treatment, Qual. Life Res., 15, 273-83

Osowiecki D. M., B. Kompas, 1999, A Prospective Study of Coping, Perceived Control, and Psychological Adaptation to Breast Cancer, Cogn. Ther. Res., 23, 169-80

Piątek J., H. Krauss, M. Gaik, J. Krawczyk, S. Sajdak, 2004, Jakość życia kobiet po amputacji piersi, Prz. Ginek. Położ., 4, 172-77

Ponczek D., A. Nowicki, W. Zegarski, Z. Banaszkiewicz, 2006, Ocena jakości życia chorych leczonych chirurgicznie z powodu raka odbytnicy w aspekcie czynników społeczno-demograficznych, Współcz. Onkol., 10, 164-70

Reuben D. B., 1997, Geriatric Assessment in Oncology, Cancer, 80, 1311-16

Ringdal G. I., K. Ringdal, 2000, A follow-up study of the quality of life in cancer patients with different prognoses, Qual. Life Res., 9, 65-73

Roussi P., V. Krikeli, C. Hatzidimitriou, I. Koutri, 2007, Patterns of Coping, Flexibility in Coping and Psychological Distress in Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer, Cogn. Ther. Res., 31, 97-109

Salander P., K. Hamberg, 2005, Gender differences in patients' written narratives about being diagnosed with cancer, Psycho-Oncology, 4, 684-95

Schipper H., 1990, Quality of life: Principles of the clinical paradigm, J. Psychosoc. Oncol., 8, 171-85

Stępień R. B., 2007, Uwarunkowania społecz-no-demograficzne poziomu lęku i depresji u kobiet po radykalnym leczeniu chirurgicznym raka piersi - mastektomii, Probl. Piel., 15, 20-25

Thome B., A-K. Dykes, I. R. Hallberg, 2004, Quality of life in old people with and without cancer, Qual. Life Res., 13, 1067-80

Tchórzewska H., 1996, Operacje odtwórcze piersi po mastektomii z powodu raka w ocenie pacjentek, Post. Rehab., 10, 69-73

Urcuyo K. R., A. E. Boyers, C. S. Carver, M. H. Antoni, 2005, Finding benefit in breast cancer: Relations with personality, coping, and concurrent well-being, Psychol. Health, 20, 175-92

Weitzner M. A., C. A. Meyers, K. K. Stuebing, A. K. Saleeba, 1997, Relationship between quality of life and mood in long-term survivors of breast cancer treated with mastectomy, Support. Care Cancer, 5, 241-48

Willits M. J., 1994, Reach to recovery in breast cancer, Cancer, 74, 2172-73

Wimberly S. R., C. S. Carver, J-P. Laurenceau, S. D. Harris, M. H. Antoni, 2005, Perceived partner reactions to diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer: Impact on psychosocial and psychosexual adjustment, J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 73, 300-11

WHO, 2007, Responding to the challenge of cancer in Europe, Available from:

Wong-Kim E. C., J. R. Bloom, 2005, Depression experienced by young women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, Psycho-Oncology, 14, 564-73

Anthropological Review

The Journal of Polish Anthropological Society

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.70

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.282
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.439

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 231 229 17
PDF Downloads 39 38 5