Influence of Water on Tribological Properties of Wood-Polymer Composites

Open access


Utilization of ecological materials for appliances and products is one of the ways to achieve the goal of sustainability.Wood-polymer composites as a cheap, lightweight, durable and esthetic material has gained attention of scientists, engineers and consumers alike. Different kinds of polymeric matrices, plants used as the fillers, chemical of physical modifiers and processing technologies have already been widely studied. Nonetheless, surprisingly few information on Wood-Polymer Composites’ tribology can be found. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap. Polypropylene-and poly(lactic acid)-based composites with varying wood flour content have been analyzed. The Brinell’s hardness and coefficient of friction of the samples have been determined. In order to evaluate the influence of the moisture content on the tribological and mechanical properties of the composites, the samples have also been aged in water. The investigation revealed that polymeric composites filled with wood flour can present favorable coefficient of friction, compared to the neat resins. The results of our study can establish a good starting point for further investigation.

[1] Ashori A.,Wood-plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries, Bioresource Technology 99 (2008) 4661-4667.

[2] Osburg V.S., StrackM., ToporowskiW.,Consumer acceptance of wood-polymer composites: a conjoint analytical approach with a focus on innovative and environmentally concerned consumers, Journal of Cleaner Production 110 (2016) 180-190.

[3] Saba N., TahirP., JawaidM.,A review on potentiality of nano filler/natural fiber filled polymer hybrid composites, Polymer 6 (2014) 2247-2273.

[4] Brostow W., DatashviliT., MillerH.,Wood and wood derived materials, Journal of Materials Education 32 (2010) 125-138.

[5] Salasinska K., RyszkowskaJ., The effect of filler chemical constitution and morphological properties on the mechanical properties of natural fiber composites, Composite Interfaces 22 (2015) 39-50.

[6] Espert A., VilaplanaF., KarlssonS.,Comparison of water absorption in natural cellulosic fibers form wood and one-year crop in polypropylene composites and its influence on their mechanical properties, Composites Part A 35 (2004) 1267-1276.

[7] Adekomaya O., JamiruT., SadikuR., HuanZ.,A review on the sustainability of natural fiber in matrix reinforcement -a practical perspective, Journal of Reinforced Plastics & Composites 35 (2016) 3-7.

[8] Hamel S. E., HermansonJ. C., CramerS. M.,Mechanical and time-dependent behavior of wood-plastic composites subjected to tension and compression, Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Material 26 (2012) 968-987.

[9] Sombatsompop N., YotinwattanakumtornC., ThongpinC.,Influence of type and concentration of maleic anhydrite grafted polypropylene and impact modifiers on mechanical properties of PP/wood sawdust composites, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 97 (2005) 475-484.

[10] Kord B.,Effect of wood flour content on the hardness and water uptake of thermoplastic polymer composites, World Applied Sciences Journal 12 (2011) 1632-1634.

[11] Sobczak L., BruggemannO., PutzR. F., Polyolefin composites with natural fibres and wood-modification of thefiber/filler-matrix interaction, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 127 (2013) 1-17.

[12] Yousif B. F., El-TayebN. S. M.,High-stress three-body abrasive wear of treated and untreated oil palm fibre-reinforced polyester composites, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 222 (2008) 637-646.

[13] Yousif B. F., El-TayebN. S. M.,Wet adhesive wear characteristics of untreated oil palm fibre-reinforced polyester and treated oil palm fibre-reinforced polyester composites using the pin-on-disc and block-on-ring techniques, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 224 (2010) 123-131.

[14] Nirmal U., YousifB. F., RillingD., BrevernP. V.,Effect of betelnut fibres treatment and contact conditions on adhesive wear and frictional performance of polyester composites, Wear 268 (2010) 1354-1370.

[15] Ahalwan A., YousifB. F.,In state of art: Mechanical and tribological behaviour of polymeric composites based on natural fibres, Materials and Design, 48 (2013) 14-24.

[16] Li K., XiangD., LeiX.,Green and self-lubrication polyoxymethylene composites filled with low-density polyethylene and rice husk flour, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 108 (2008) 2778-2786.

[17] Xiang X., XiangD., FangW., MaJ.,Friction and wear behavior of POM composites filled with LDPE and wood fibers, Advanced Materials Research, 415-417 (2012) 293-296.

[18] Bajpai P. K., SinghI., MadaanJ.,Frictional and adhesive wear performance of natural fibre reinforced polypropylene composites, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology 227 (2012) 385-392.

[19] Aurrekoetxea J., SarrionandiaM., GomezX.,Effects of microstructure on wear behaviour of wood reinforced polypropylene composite, Wear 265 (2008) 606-611.

[20] Brostow W., DatashviliT., JiangP., MillerH.,Recycled HDPE reinforced with sol-gel silica modified wood sawdust, European Polymer Journal 76 (2016) 28-39.

[21] Adhikary K. B., PangS., StaigerM. P.,Dimensional stability and mechanical behaviour of wood-plastic composites based on recycled and virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE), Composites Part B: Engineering, 39 (2008) 807-815.

[22] Borysiak S.,Fundamental studies on lignocellulose/polypropylene composites: effects on wood treatment on the transcrystalline morphology and mechanical properties, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 127 (2013) 1309-1322.

[23] Singh N., YousifB. F., RillingD.,Tribological characteristics of sustainable fiber -reinforced thermoplastic composites under wet adhesive wear, Tribology Transactions 54 (2011) 736-748.

[24] Material's technical data sheet, Natureworks 2500 HP.

[25] Material's technical data sheet, Moplen HP 500 N.

[26] Maya J. J., SabuT.,Biofibres and biocomposites, Carbohydrate Polymers 71 (2008) 343-364.

[27] Peltola H., PaakkonenE., JetsuP., HeinemannS., Wood based PLA and PP composites: Effect of fibre type and matrix polymer on fibre morphology, dispersion and composite properties, CompositesPart A: Applied Science and Manufacturing61(2014) 13-22.

[28] Wang J.,ChanB., LiuN., YanF.,Combined effects of fiber/matrix interface and water absorption on the tribological behaviors of water-lubricated polytetrafluoroethylene-based composites reinforced with carbon and basalt fibers, Composites: Part A 59 (2014) 85-92.

[29] Ndiaye D., GueyeM., DiopB.,Characterization, physical and mechanical properties of polypropylene/wood-flour composites 38 (2013) 59-68.

[30] Worzakowska M.,Novel DCPD-modified polyester containing epoxy groups: thermal, viscoelastic, and mechanical properties of their wood flour filled copolymers, Polymer Bulletin 68 (2012) 775-787.

[31] Zakir Hossain K. M., ParsonsA. J., RuddC. D., AhmedI., ThielemansW.,Mechanical, crystallization and moisture absorption properties of melt drawn polylactic acid fibres, European Polymer Journal 53 (2014) 270-281.

[32] Pantani R., De SantisF.,AuriemmaF., De RosaC., Di CirolamoR.,Effects of water sorption on Poly(lactic acid), Polymer 99 (2016) 130-139.

[33] Auras R., HarteB., SelkeS.,An overview of polylactides as packaging materials, Macromolecular Bioscience, 4 (2004) 835-864.

[34] Myshkin N. K., PetrokovetsM. I., KovalevA. V., Tribology of polymers: Adhesion, friction, wearand mass-transfer, Tribology International 38 (2005), 910-921.

[35] BielińskiD. M.,Strukturalne aspekty tarcia polimerów, Tribologia 4 (2003) 33-44.

[36] Unal H., MimarogluA., Influence of test conditions on the tribological properties of polymers, Industral Lubrication and Tribology 55 (2003) 178-183.

[37] Brostow W., Hagg LoblandH. E.,Materials: Introduction and Applications, Wiley 2017.

[38] Brostow W., KovacevicV., VrsaljkoD., WhitwirthJ.,Tribology of polymers and polymer-based composites, Journal of Materials Education 32 (2010) 273-290.

[39] Yousif B. F., NirmalU.,Wear and friction performance of polymeric composites aged in various solutions, Wear 272 (2011) 97-104.

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 340 340 33
PDF Downloads 98 98 10