Background: In the literature there are a number of studies that suggest a possible correlation between cholelithiasis/cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer. The exposure of the colon mucosa to the action of bile acids that potentially have a carcinogenic effect due to the change in anatomy after cholecystectomy, seems to be the explanation of this association. The purpose of this paper was to search for such a correlation in our study group. Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study, analyzing the patients admitted to the First Surgical Clinic of the County Emergency Clinical Hospital Tîrgu Mureș, between January 1st, 2005 - December 31st, 2010. Analyzing the medical records, operation protocols and histopathological results, we paid attention to demographics, location of neoplasia, the time elapsed since the cholecystectomy to the discovery of neoplasia, histological types, trying to perform correlations between these parameters and the lithiasic factor. Results: Out of the 534 patients admitted and operated with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, 15.6% (n = 83) showed a history of gallbladder stone affection. Most patients came from urban areas, the average age was 67.2 (range 39-88 years), females were more affected. The most common locations were: the sigmoid colon (26.5%), rectum (36.3%) and the most common histological form was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: Similar to other studies, our work suggests a slight increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in patients that underwent a cholecystectomy, without drawing a firm conclusion. We deem it necessary to see if diet changes of the Romanian population affect this relationship
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