Introduction: The international literature gives us very variable data regarding sleep disorders and the complaints related to this pathology. However, interpreting these data is difficult because of the ethnical and cultural differences and the numerous possibilities of the assessments. In this paper the authors examined and evaluated the main parameters which characterize the sleep habits of a group of children in Romania, as well as the complaints related to it, which could influence the quality of sleeping.
Material and method: Distributing questionnaires amongst children in Tîrgu Mureș. We used different questionnaires, based on the Epworth and Conner’s scores, for children between 11-14 and 15-18 years and for their parents.
Results: The gender ratio was approximately equal, the height and weight of the children was within the framework of Romanian standards. The most frequent nocturnal complaints were: problems with falling asleep, agitation, awakenings during the night. The most frequent daytime complaints: fatigue when in school, difficulty waking up in the morning and mood swings. The results showed significant differences between weekday sleeping hours and weekend sleep time (p = 0.0022).
Conclusion: Sleep habits change with age, which is a physiological effect. Other factors that modify sleeping habits in a negative way and reduce the time spent sleeping, play a crucial role in the occurrence of persistent fatigue, reduced quality school performance and even of a depraved life quality.
1. Acebo C, Sadeh A, Seifer R, et al. Estimating sleep patterns with activity monitoring in children and adolescents: how many nights are necessary for reliable measures? Sleep. 1999;22(1):95-103.
2. Anderson J, Foster J, Goodenough F. The sleep of young children. Pedagog Semin J Genet Psychol. 1928;35(2):201-217.
3. Bauer K, Blunden SL. How accurate is subjective reporting of childhood sleep patterns: a review of the literature and implications for practice. Current Pediatric Reviews. 2008;4(2):132-142.
4. Chant N, Blatz W. A study of sleeping habits of children. In: Bott E, Blatz W, Chant N, Bott H, eds. Genetic Psychology Monographs: Child Behaviour, Differential and Genetic Psychology. Clark University (Worcester, MA), Toronto, Canada: 1928:13-43.
5. Gaina A, Sekine M, Chen X, Hamanishi S, Kagamimori S. Validity of child sleep diary questionnaire among junior high school children. J Epidemiol. 2004;14(1):1-4.
6. Strauch I, Meier B. Sleep need in adolescents: a longitudinal approach. Sleep 1988;11:378-386.
7. Read M. The physical care of young children. In: The Mothercraft Manual. New York, NY: Little, Brown, and Company; 1916.
8. Terman L, Hocking A. The sleep of school children: Its distribution according to age, and its relation to physical and mental efficiency. J Educ Psychol. 1913;4(3):138-147.
9. Teufel J, Brown S, Birch D. Sleep among early adolescent students. Am J Health Studies. 2007;22(1):10-17.
10. Harrison Y, Horne JA. Should we be taking more sleep? Sleep. 1995;18(10):901-907.
11. Dorofaeff TF, Denny S. Sleep and adolescence. Do New Zealand teenagers get enough? J Paediatr Child Health. 2006;42(9):515-520.
12. Matricciani LA, Olds TS, Blunden S, Rigney G, Marie T. Never Enough Sleep: A Brief History of Sleep Recommendations for Children. Pediatrics 2012;129:548.
13. Oka Y, Suzuki S, Inoue Y. Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and sleep/ wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children. Behav Sleep Med. 2008;6(4):220-233.
14. Olds T, Blunden S, Petkov J, Forchino F. The relationships between sex, age, geography and time in bed in adolescents: a metaanalysis of data from 23 countries. Sleep Med Rev. 2010;14(6):371-378.
15. Lumeng J. Future directions for research on sleep durations in pediatric populations. Sleep. 2010;33(10):1281-1282.
16. NOVÁK, M. Alvás-és ébrenléti zavarok diagnosztikája és terápiája. Budapest, OKKER, 2000. pp. 42-43.
17. Sekine M, Chandola T, Martikainen P, Marmot M, Kagamimori S. Work and family characteristics as determinants of socioeconomic and sex inequalities in sleep: the Japanese Civil Servants Study. Sleep. 2006; 29(2):206-216.
19. Reynolds M, Mallay H. The sleep of young children. J Genet Psychol. 1933;43:322-351.
20. Sadeh A, Gruber R, Raviv A. The effects of sleep restriction and extension on schoolage children: what a difference an hour makes. Child Dev. 2003;74(2):444-455.
21. Carskadon MA. Patterns of sleep and sleepiness in adolescents. Paediatrician. 1990;17(1):5-12.
22. Mindell JA, Owens J, Alves R, et al. Give children and adolescents the gift of a good night’s sleep: a call to action. Sleep Med. 2011;12(3):203-204.
23. Warner S, Murray G, Meyer D. Holiday and school-term sleep patterns of Australian adolescents. J Adolesc. 2008;31:595-608.
24. Wing YK, Li SX, Li AM, Zhang J, Kong AP. The effect of weekend and holiday sleep compensation on childhood overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2009;124:994-1000.
25. Walsh J, Dement W, Dinge D. Sleep medicine, public policy, and public health. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders; 2005:648-656.
26. Blunden S, Hoban TF, Chervin RD. Sleepiness in children. Sleep Med Clin. 2006;1(1):105-118.
27. Heussler HS. Common causes of sleep disruption and daytime sleepiness: childhood sleep disorders II. Med J Aust. 2005;182(9):484-489.
28. Howard BJ, Wong J. Sleep disorders. Pediatr Rev. 2001;22(10):327-342.
29. Baumecker W. Die Schlafzeit des Kleinkindes. Deutsche Gesundh Wes. 1958;13(16):496-499.
30. Gupta R et al. Sleep patterns of urban school-going adolescents. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45:183-189.
31. Bernhard L. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Schlafverhältnisse Betliner Gemeindeschüler. Beitr Kin-derf Heilerziehung. 1907;39(5):5-13.
32. Loessl B, Valerius G, Kopasz M, Hornyak M, Riemann D, Voderholzer U. Are adolescents chronically sleep-deprived? An investigation of sleep habits of adolescents in the Southwest of Germany. Child Care Health Dev. 2008;34(5):549-556.
33. Wolfson AR, Carskadon MA, Acebo C, et al. Evidence for the validity of a sleep habits survey for adolescents. Sleep. 2003;26(2):213-216.