Structural Transformations Versus Hard Particles Motion in the Brass Ingots

Open access


A mathematical method for the forecast of the type of structure in the steel static ingot has been recently developed. Currently, the method has been applied to structural zones prediction in the brass ingots obtained by the continuous casting. Both the temperature field and thermal gradient field have been calculated in order to predict mathematically the existence of some structural zones in the solidifying brass ingot. Particularly, the velocity of the liquidus isotherm movement and thermal gradient behavior versus solidification time have been considered. The analysis of the mentioned velocity allows the conclusion that the brass ingots can evince: chilled columnar grains-, (CC), fine columnar grains-, (FC), columnar grains-, (C), equiaxed grains zone, (E), and even the single crystal, (SC), situated axially. The role of the mentioned morphologies is analyzed to decide whether the hard particles existing in the brass ingots can be swallowed or rejected by the solid / liquid (s/l) interface of a given type of the growing grains. It is suggested that the columnar grains push the hard particles to the end of a brass ingot during its continuous casting.

[1] W. Wołczyński, Large Steel Ingots: Microstructure Mathematical Modeling. Entry in: The Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys, p. 1910-1924, Boca Raton-London-New York, 2016, Taylor & Francis; R. Colas, G.E. Totten (Eds.).

[2] J.D. Hunt, Steady State Columnar / Equiaxed Growth of Dendrites and Eutectics, Materials Science and Engineering 65, 75-83 (1984).

[3] I.V. Alexandrova, D.V. Alexandrov, D.L. Aseev, S.V. Bulitcheva, Mushy Layer Formation during Solidification of Binary Alloys from a Cooled Wall: the Role of Boundary Conditions. Acta Physica Polonica 115A, 6-9 (2009).

[4] Z. Lipnicki, B. Weigand, Influence of Thermal Boundary Layer on the Contact Layer between Liquid and a Cold Plate in a Solidification Process. Heat and Mass Transfer 47, 1629-1635 (2011).

[5] B. Mochnacki, E. Majchrzak, R. Szopa, Application of the Boundary Element Method for the Numerical Modelling of the Solidification of Cylindrical and Spherical Castings. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 106, 99-106, (2000).

[6] W. Wołczyński, Z. Lipnicki, A.W. Bydałek, A.A. Ivanova, Structural Zones in Large Static Ingots. Forecasts for Continuously Cast Brass Ingot. Archives of Foundry Engineering 16, 141-146 (2016).

[7] L. Konozsy, A. Ishmurzin, M. Grasser, M.H. Wu, A. Ludwig, R. Tanzer, W. Schutzenhofer, Columnar to Equiaxed Transition during Ingot Casting using Ternary Alloy Composition. Materials Science Forum 649, 349-354 (2010).

[8] Ch.A. Gandin, From Constrained to Unconstrained Growth during Directional Solidification. Acta Materialia 48, 2483-2501 (2000).

[9] A. Z. Lorbiecka, B. Sarler, A Sensitivity Study of Grain Growth Model for Prediction of ECT/CET Transformations in Continuous Steel Casting. Materials Science Forum 649, 373-378 (2010).

[10] J. Szajnar, The Columnar Crystals Shape and Castings Structure Cast in Magnetic Field. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 157/158, 761-764 (2004).

[11] A. Burbelko, J. Falkus, W. Kapturkiewicz, K. Sołek, P. Drożdż, M. Wróbel, Modeling of the Grain Structure Formation in the Steel Continuous Ingot by CAFE Method, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 57, 379-384 (2012).

[12] A.A. Ivanova, Dynamika Tiemperaturnych Gradientow Nieprerywnolitogo Slitka, Metallurgicheskije Processy i Oborudovanije, 2(16), 7-12 (2009).

[13] A.A. Ivanova, Calculation of Phase Change Boundary Position in Continuous Casting. Archives of Foundry Engineering 13, 57-62 (2012).

[14] M. Tkadlečkova, L. Valek, L. Socha, M. Saternus, J. Pieprzyca, T. Merder, K. Michalek, M. Kovac, Study of Solidification of Continuously Cast Steel Round Billets using Numerical Mode, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 61, 221-226 (2016).

[15] J. Szajnar, M. Stawarz, T. Wróbel, W. Sebzda, Influence of Electromagnetic Field on Pure Metals and Alloys Structure, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 34, 95-102 (2009).

[16] M. Cholewa, T. Wróbel, S. Tenerowicz, Bimetallic Layers Casting, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 43, 385-392 (2010).

[17] T. Wróbel, Bimetallic Layered Casting Alloy Steel – Grey Cast Iron, Archives of Materials Science and Engineering 48, 118-125 (2011).

[18] A. Zyska, Z. Konopka, M. Łągiewka, M. Nadolski, Modelling of the Dendritic Crystallization by the Cellular Automaton Method. Archives of Foundry Engineering 16, 99-106 (2016).

[19] E. Majchrzak, B. Mochnacki, M. Dziewoński, M. Jasiński, Identification of Boundary Heat Flux on the Continuous Casting Surface. Archives of Foundry Engineering 8, 105-110 (2008).

[20] T. Telejko, Z. Malinowski, M. Rywotycki, Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Continuous Steel Casting. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 54, 837-844 (2009).

[21] T. Lipiński, Improvement of Mechanical Properties of AlSi7Mg Alloy with Fast Cooling Homogeneous Modifier. Archives of Foundry Engineering 8, 85-88 (2008).

[22] K. Suzuki, K. Taniguchi, The Mechanism of Reducing “A” Segregates in Steel Ingots. Transactions of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan 21, 235-242 (1981).

[23] Ch.A. Gandin, M. Rappaz, R. Tintillier, Three Dimensional Simulation of the Grain Formation in Investment Casting. Metallurgical Transactions 25A, 629-641 (1994).

[24] M.A. Martorano, C. Beckerman, Ch.A. Gandin, Solutal Interaction Mechanism for Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Alloy Solidification. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions 35A, 1915-1922 (2004).

[25] B. Billia, Ch.A. Gandin, G. Zimmerman, D.J. Browne, M. Dupouy, Columnar – Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing. Microgravity Science and Technology 16, 290-298 (2005).

[26] H. Nguyen-Thi, B.H. Zhou, G. Reinhart, B. Billia, Q.S. Liu, C.W. Lan, T. Lyubimova, B. Roux, Influence of Forced Convection on Columnar Microstructure during Directional Solidification of Al-Ni Alloys. Materials Science Forum 508, 181-186 (2006).

[27] S. McFadden, D.J. Browne, J. Banaszek, Prediction of the Formation of an Equiaxed Zone ahead of a Columnar Front in Binary Alloys Castings: Indirect and Direct Methods. Materials Science Forum 508, 325-330 (2006).

[28] Y. Miyata, Morphological Transition in High Growth Rate in Constrained Solidification. Materials Science Forum 649, 255-262 (2010).

[29] S. McFadden, D.J. Browne, L. Sturz, G. Zimmermann, Analysis of a Microgravity Experiment for Columnar to Equiaxed Transitions with Modeling Results. Materials Science Forum 649, 361-366 (2010).

[30] G. Zimmermann, L. Sturz, B. Billia, N. Mangelinck-Noel, D.R. Liu, H. Nguyen-Thi, N. Bergeon, Ch.A. Gandin, D.J. Browne, Ch. Beckermann, D. Tourret, A. Karma, Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing of AlSi7 Alloys in Micro-gravity – CETSOL Project. Materials Science Forum 790/791, 12-21 (2014).

[31] T. Umeda, Heat, Mass and Microstructure Simulation of Continuous Casting. Proceedings of 7-th International Symposium on Physical Simulation, Tsukuba, Japan, June 3-7, 1997, p. 64-75.

[32] M. M’Hamdi, M. Bobadilla, G. Combeau, G. Lesoult, Numerical Modeling of the Columnar to Equiaxed Transition in Continuous Casting of Steel. Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Process VIII, Proceedings of the VIII-th Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification, San Diego, California, USA, June 7-12, 1998, Thomas, B.G. Beckerman, Ch., Eds., T.M.S., Warrendale, Pennsylvania, p. 375.

[33] A.Z. Lorbiecka, B. Sarler, Simulation of Dendritic Growth with Different Orientation by Using the Point Automata Method. Computers, Materials and Continua 18, 69-103 (2010).

[34] J. Stetina, F. Kavicka, T. Mauder, Numerical Model of Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer during Solidification of Concasting Steel. Proceedings of the ASME/JSME 8-th Thermal Engineering Joint Conference - AJTEC, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, March 13-17, 2011, Eds. ASME/JSME Conference CD, AJTEC-44031, 2.1.

[35] W. Wołczyński, Constrained / Unconstrained Solidification within the Massive Cast Steel / Iron Ingots. Archives of Foundry Engineering 10, 195-202 (2010).

[36] A.M. Zubko, V.G. Lobanov, V.V. Nikonova, Reaction of Foreign Particles with a Crystallization Front. Soviet Physics-Crystallography 18, 239-245 (1973).

[37] D. Shangguan, S. Ahuja, D.M. Stefan’s, An Analytical Model for the Interaction between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface. Metallurgical Transactions 23A, 669-706 (1992).

[38] E. Fraś, E. Olejnik, Interaction between Solidification Front and Alien Phase Particles. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 53, 695-702 (2008).

[39] M. Perzyk, J. Kozłowski, Methodology of Fault Diagnosis in Ductile Iron Melting Process. Archives of Foundry Engineering 16, 101-108 (2016).

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

The Journal of Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science and Commitee on Metallurgy of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.571
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.776

CiteScore 2016: 0.85

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.347
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.740


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 256 256 11
PDF Downloads 76 76 4