Recent Developments on Discontinuous Precipitation

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The discontinuous precipitation (DP) belongs to a group of diffusive solid state phase transformations during which the formation of a new phase is heterogeneous and limited to a migrating reaction front (RF). The use of analytical electron microscopy provided reliable information that there is no differences in the diffusion rate at the stationary grain boundary and moving RF of DP reaction. On the other hand, the use of “in situ” transmission electron microscopy observations indicated the importance of stop-go motion or oscillatory movement of the RF.

During 2004-2016 period more or less 280 papers were published in which the terms “discontinuous precipitation, “cellular precipitation”, discontinuous coarsening” appeared either in the abstract or in key-words.

In the present contribution, the research on the DP reaction will be reviewed taking into account new aspects of theories and modelling, new evidences and findings, effect of various factors including third element, external stresses, plastic deformation and GB orientation, occurrence in less known systems and alloys like: superalloys, nitrided Fe-based alloys and Cu-based alloys. Finally, some suggestions for the future research will be formulated.

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[35] T.P. Rojhirunsakool, S. Nag and R. Banerjee, Discontinuous precipitation of γ′ phase in Ni-Co-Al Alloys, J. Metals 66, 1465-1470 (2014).

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[37] R. Monzen, C. Watanabe, D. Mino, S. Saida, Initiation and growth of the discontinuous precipitation reaction at [011] symmetric tilt boundaries in Cu-Be alloy bicrystals, Acta Mater. 53, 1253-1261 (2005).

[38] N. Boonyachut, D. E. Laughlin, Influence of boundary structure on cellular nucleation in Cu-3 w/oTi age-hardening alloys, J. Mater. Sci. 44, 449-456 (2009).

[39] Z.-J. Wang, T.J. Konno, Discontinuous precipitation with metastable x phase in a Cu-8.6% Sn alloy, Philos. Mag. 93, 949-974 (2013).

[40] R. Monzen, T. Hasegawa, C. Watanabe, Effect of external stress on discontinuous precipitation in a Cu-2.1 wt % Be alloy, Philos. Mag. 90, 1347-1358 (2010).

[41] R. Monzen, T. Hododa, Y. Takagawa, C. Watanabe, Bend formability and strength of Cu-Be-Co alloys, J. Mater. Sci. 46, 4284-4289 (2011).

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[43] R. Markandeya, S. Nagarjuna, D.S. Sarma, Effect of prior cold work on age hardening of Cu-3Ti-1Cr alloy, Mater. Charact. 57, 348-357 (2006).

[44] R. Markandeya, S. Nagarjuna, D.S. Sarma, Precipitation hardening of Cu-3Ti-1Cd alloy, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 16, 640-646 (2007).

[45] R. Monzen, T. Terazawa, C. Watanabe, Influence of external stress on discontinuous precipitation behavior in a Cu-Ag alloy, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 41, 1936-1941 (2010).

[46] H.P. Ng, C.J. Bettles, B.C. Muddle, Some observations on deformation-related discontinuous precipitation in an Al-14.6at.%Zn alloy, J. Alloy. Compd. 509, 1582-1589. (2011).

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[48] S. Semboshi, J. Ikeda, A. Iwase, T. Takasugi and S. Suzuki, Effect of boron doping on cellular discontinuous precipitation for age-hardenable Cu-Ti alloys, Materials 8, 3467-3478 (2015).

[49] S. Ueta, M. Hida and M. Kajihara, Effects of Fe, W and Mo on kinetics of discontinuous precipitation in the NiCr system, Mater. Trans. A 53, 1744-1752 (2012).

[50] S. Ueta, M. Hida And M. Kajihara, Influences of Co, Cu and V on kinetics of discontinuous precipitation in the Ni-Cr system, ISIJ Int. 53, 347-355 (2013).

[51] T.S. Gatsenko, Y.O. Lyashenko, O.A. Shmatko, Vplyv tretoho elementu na shvydkist’ komirkovoho rozpadu v splavi Cu-4.35 at.%Ti, Visnyk Cherkaskogo Universytetu, Seriya Fizyko-Matematychni Nauky 269, 31-37 (2013).

[52] Y.O. Lyashenko, S. І. Derevyanko, O.A. Shmatko, ‘Rozrakhunok vplyvu dodavannya tret’oho komponenta do systemy Cu-Ti na enerhiyu sehrehatsiyi v protsesakh komirkovoho rozpadu, Visnyk Cherkaskogo Universytetu, Seriya Fizyko-Matematychni Nauky 309, 49-57 (2014).

[53] W.A. Soffa, D.E. Laughlin, High-strength age hardening copper-titanium alloys: redivivus, Prog. Mater. Sci. 49, 347-366 (2004).

[54] T.S. Gatsenko, Y.O Bondarenko, O.A. Shmatko, Kinetic and thermodynamic cellular precipitation parameters of Cu-Ti solid solutions, Metallofizika i Noveishie Tekhnologii 30, 337-346 (2008).

[55] A. Heckl, S. Cenanovic, S. Neumeier, M. Goken, R.F. Singer, Reasons for the enhanced phase stability of Ru-containing nickel-based superalloys, Acta Mater. 59, 6563-6573. (2011).

[56] A. Heckl, S. Cenanovic, M. Goken, R.F. Singer, Discontinuous precipitation and phase stability in Re- and Ru-containing nickel-base superalloys, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 10-19 (2012).

[57] Y. Liu, L.C. Zhang, B.S. Senturk, J.V. Mantese, S.P. Alpay, M. Aindow, Discontinuous precipitation of β-Ru phase in Ni-18Ru alloys, J Mater Sci 47, 5701-5705 (2012).

[58] S.S. Hosmani, P. Kuppusami, R.K. Goyal, in: An introduction to surface alloying of metals, nitriding of binary iron-based alloys: an overview, 29-41, SpringerBriefs in Manufacturing and Surface Engineering, Springer India 2014.

[59] H. Selg, E. Bischoff, S.R. Meka, R.E. Schacherl, T. Waldenmaier, E.J. Mittemeijer, Molybdenum-nitride precipitation in recrystallized and cold-rolled Fe-1 at. pct Mo alloy, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 44, 4059-4070 (2013).

[60] N.C.S. Srinivas, V.V. Kutumbarao, Growth mechanism for discontinuous precipitation in a multi-component (Fe-Cr-Mn-N) system, Scripta Mater. 51, 1105-1109 (2004).

[61] D. Wang, F. Ernst, H. Kahn, A.H. Heuer, Cellular precipitation at a 17-7 PH stainless steel interphase interface during low-temperature nitridation, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 45, 3578-3585 (2014).

[62] D.Q. Peng, T.H. Kim, J.H. Chung, J.K. Park, Development of nitride-layer of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel during high-temperature ammonia gas-nitriding, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 7522-29 (2010).

[63] A.R. Clauss, E. Bischoff, S.S. Hosmani, R.E. Schacherl, E.J. Mittemeijer, Crystal structure and morphology of mixed Cr1–xAlxN nitride precipitates: gaseous nitriding of a Fe-1.5 wt pct Cr-1.5 wt pct Al alloy, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 40, 1923-34 (2009).

[64] S. Jung, S.R. Meka, R.E. Schacherl, E. Bischoff, E.J. Mittemeijer, Nitride formation and excess nitrogen uptake after nitriding ferritic Fe-Ti-Cr alloys, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 934-44 (2012).

[65] C.W. Kang, Sai Ramudu Meka, R.E. Schacherl, E.J. Mittemeijer, Microstructure and kinetics of nitride precipitation in a quaternary iron-based model Fe-2.82 at. Pct Cr-0.13 at. pct Mo-0.18 at. pct V, Alloy Metall. Mater. Trans. A 46, 238-336 (2015).

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