Rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by pulsed electrodeposition was investigated in the non-aqueous electrolyte, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazoliumbis(trifluoro-methanesulfonyl)imide ([EMIM]TFSI) with gold trichloride (AuCl3). To aid the dissolution of AuCl3, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl) was used as a supporting electrolyte in [EMIM]TFSI. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed a cathodic reaction corresponding to the reduction of gold at −0.4 V vs. Pt-QRE. To confirm the electrodeposition process, potentiostatic electrodeposition of gold in the non-aqueous electrolyte was conducted at −0.4 V for 1 h at room temperature. To synthesize AuNPs, pulsed electrodeposition was conducted with controlled duty factor, pulse duration, and overpotential. The composition, particle-size distribution, and morphology of the AuNPs were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrodeposited AuNPs were uniformly distributed on the platinum electrode surface without any impurities arising from the non-aqueous electrolyte. The size distribution of AuNPs could be also controlled by the electrodeposition conditions.