On the Failure Mode of Resistance Spot Welded Hsla 420 Steel / Tryb Uszkodzenia Zgrzewanych Spoin Stali Hsla 420

Open access

Failure mode of resistance spot welds (interfacial vs. pullout) is a qualitative measure of resistance spot weld performance. Considering adverse effect of interfacial failure mode on the vehicle crashworthiness, process parameters should be adjusted so that the pullout failure mode is guaranteed ensuring reliability of spot welds during vehicle lifetime. In this paper, metallurgical and mechanical properties of HSLA 420 resistance spot welds are studied with particular attention to the failure mode. Results showed that the conventional weld size recommendation of 4t0:5 (t is sheet thickness) is not sufficient to guarantee pullout failure mode for HSLA steel spot welds during the tensile-shear test. Considering the failure mechanism of spot welds during the tensileshear test, minimum required fusion zone size to ensure the pullout failure mode was estimated using an analytical model. Fusion zone size proved to be the most important controlling factor for peak load and energy absorption of HSLA 420 resistance spot weld.

[1] M.S. Weglowski, S. Stano, G. Michta, W. Osuch, Structural Characterization of Nd:YAG Laser Welded Joint of Dual Phase Steel, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 55, 211-220 (2010).

[2] X. Sun, E.V. Stephens, M.A. Khaleel, Effects of fusion zone size and failure mode on peak load and energy absorption of advanced high strength steel spot welds under lap shear loading conditions, Eng. Fail. Anal. 15, 356-367 (2008).

[3] Z. Gronostajski, A. Niechajowicz, S. Polak, Prospects for the Use of New-Generation Steels of the AHSS Type for Collision Energy Absorbing Components, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 55, 221-230 (2010).

[4] M. Pouranvari, A. Abedi, P. Marashi, M. Goodarzi, Effect of expulsion on peak load and energy absorption of low carbon resistance spot welds, Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining 13, 39-43 (2008).

[5] X. Sun, E.V. Stephens, M.A. Khaleel, Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds Weld. J. 86, 18-25 (2007).

[6] H. Zhang, M. Zhou, S.J. Hu, Impact Strength Measurement of Spot Welds, Proceedings of the institute of Mechanical Engineering, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 215, 403-414 (2001).

[7] M. Pouranvari, S.P.H. Marashi, Key factors influencing mechanical performance of dual phase steel resistance spot welds, Sci Technol Weld Join 15, 149-155 (2010).

[8] S.M. Zuniga, Predicting overload pull-out failures in resistance spot welded, Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, 1994.

[9] V.H. Baltazar Hernandez, M.L. Kuntz, M.I. Khan, Y. Zhou, Infulence of weld size and microstruture of dissimilar AHSS resistance spot welds, Science and technology of welding and joining 13, 769-776 (2008).

[10] M. Marya, X.Q. Gayden, Development of Requirements for resistance Spot Welding Dual-Phase (DP600) Steels Part 2: Statistical Analyses and Process Maps, Weld J. 84, 197-204 (2005).

[11] R.M. Rivett, Assessment of resistance spot weld in low carbon and high strength steel sheet-Part 1 static properties, Research report, The Welding Institute, 1982.

[12] J.M. Sawhill, J.C. Baker, Spot weldability of high-strength sheet steels, Weld. J. 59, 19-30 (1980).

[13] B. Pollard, Spot welding characteristics of HSLA steel for automotive applications Weld. J. 53, 343-350 (1974).

[14] J. Van den Bossche, Ultimate strength and failure mode of spot welds in high strength steels, SAE paper 770214, 1977.

[15] Recommended practices for test methods and evaluation the resistance spot welding behavior of automotive sheet steels, ANSI/AWS/SAE D8?9-97, 1997.

[16] J.E. Gould, S.P. Khurana, T. Li, Predictions of microstructures when welding automotive advanced high-strength steels, Weld J. 86, 111-116 (2006).

[17] K.E. Easterling, Modelling the weld thermal cycle and transformation behavior in the heat-affected zone. Mathematical Modelling of Weld Phenomena, 1993, Eds. Cerjak H and Easterling K. E. The Institute of Materials.

[18] M. Pouranvari, S.P.H. Marashi, D.S. Safanama, Failure mode transition in AHSS resistance spot welds. Part II: Experimental investigation and model validation, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 528, 8344-8352 (2011).

[19] P. Burgmann, K. Clymer, S. Cobb, M. Miller, A. O’ Loughlin, K.O. Findley, S. Liu, Weldability, Processing, Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior Relationships in Advanced High-Strength Steel, Iron and Steel Technology 7, 76-85 (2010).

[20] S. Zuniga, S.D. Sheppard, in ‘Fatigue and fracture mechanics’, Vol. 27, ASTM STP 1296, (ed. R. S. Piascik et al.), 469-489; 1997, Philadelphia, USA, ASTM. 09356729304.

[21] P.C. Lin, S.H. Lin, J. Pan, Modeling of failure near spot welds in lap-shear specimens based on a plane stress rigid inclusion analysis, Eng. Fract. Mech. 73, 2229-2249 (2006).

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

The Journal of Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science and Commitee on Metallurgy of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.571
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.776

CiteScore 2016: 0.85

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.347
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.740

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 147 108 7
PDF Downloads 83 70 2