Effect of Hydrostatic Extrusion with Back Pressure on Mechanical Properties of Grey and Nodular Cast Irons
Cold hydrostatic extrusion with and without back pressure of ferritic-pearlitic grey cast iron EN-GJL 250 and ferritic-pearlitic nodular cast iron EN-GJS 500-7 has been performed. The experiments were performed on a originally designed hydrostatic extrusion press operating up to 2000 MPa with back pressure up to 700 MPa. Cast irons were cold hydrostatically extruded with back pressure in one pass with extrusion ratios up to 1.77 and 2.12 for grey and nodular one, respectively. Nodular cast iron was also successfully extruded without back pressure with extrusion ratio 1.35. Severe plastic deformation has led to axial alignment and elongation of graphite inclusions in extrusion direction together with sound flow of the surrounding metal matrix accommodating the strain without cracking. External high pressure has restrained of cracks generation and propagation during the material flow and healed of already existing defects by internal friction caused by plastic flow. It was visualized by aligned and elongated graphite flakes and nodules and no cracks and porosity observed in surrounded metal matrix. Very high compressive strength of both materials has been measured, above 1000 MPa and ~2400 MPa for grey and nodular cast iron, respectively. These values were accompanied by above 3000 MPa and above 3400 MPa microhardnes HV0.2 and by over 15% and over 50% elongation at maximum strength for those materials, respectively. Cast irons with such properties can be classified as a new iron-base structural materials.
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