Fish meat consumption has gained a lot of popularity in Europe in the last years. It is considered to be a great alternative for red meat because it provides large amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D. These components lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, reduce the risk of autoimmune diseases, are essential for growth and development, can contribute to mood elevation and can prevent cognitive decline, and eye disease. Unfortunately the benefits can sometimes be accompanied by a risk associated with chemical and microbiological contaminants. The aim of this paper is to review some recently published studies concerning the groups of chemical compounds and bacteria found in fish meat, which can have negative effects on human health. In order to raise awareness, aspects related to dangerous persistent organic pollutants and zoonotic bacteria are described. The frequency of encountering them is discussed, the ways in which they can reach the human body are specified and a critical comparison of their consequences is performed.
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