Early late-glacial rock avalanche and its lasting effects on drainage and sediment dispersal (Strassberg valley catchment, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria)

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Abstract

In intramontane landscapes shaped by glacial-interglacial cycles, the most rapid changes during the proglacial/paraglacial phases may be amplified by catastrophic mass-wasting. Herein, we describe the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to Holocene development of a catchment in the Northern Calcareous Alps wherein intense proglacial/paraglacial sedimentation and descend of a rock avalanche persistently modified drainage and sediment dispersal.

During buildup of the LGM, the pre-last glacial Strassberg valley – the trunk valley of this study – was filled with a proglacial fluvio-lacustrine succession. Thereafter, the area became largely buried under the Inn ice stream. During deglacial ice melt, copious sediment was shed from glacially-conditioned mountain flanks. Alluvial fans cut off from their former supply area, and perched in isolated position, result from presumed sediment dispersal across dead ice. Shortly after deglaciation, a ~11 Mm3 rock avalanche detached from a high cliff, overran an opposing mountain ridge, and spread over a lower-positioned plateau. The rock avalanche blocked the Strassberg valley and set the base-level to an intramontane basin that persists until present. A quartz OSL age from a loess drape above the rock-avalanche deposit dates mass wasting prior to 18.77 ± 1.55 ka; so far, this is the oldest age-bracketed post-LGM catastrophic mass-wasting of the Eastern Alps.

After mass wasting, the valley was barred by the rock-avalanche deposit. This, in turn, triggered a westward switch of drainage thalweg and stream incision. The present Strassberg valley is an epigenetic bedrock gorge 1.5 km in length and down to 100 m in depth. A 234U/230Th calcite disequilibrium age of 9 ± 1 ka from cemented talus indicates that most incision took place during the late-glacial to early Holocene. Aside of the large-scale morphology (valleys, ranges) the drainage, the smaller-scale morphology, and the sediment volumes of the study area are mainly coined by proglacial/paraglacial processes and by rock avalanching. Holocene landscape changes are modest and chiefly comprise aggradation of high-positioned scree slopes, colluvial/alluvial redeposition and stream incision, and slope stabilization by reforestation. Our results underscore that intramontane sceneries are mosaics with respect to the age of landforms and that large parts of the landscape still are off geomorphic equilibrium with interglacial conditions.

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