Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk samples in European countries

Open access


Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants, harmful to human health, which enter the human body mainly through food and bind to body fat. For these reasons their use in most countries is prohibited. Human milk has an advantage over other types of human samples in measuring human exposure to PCBs, as it is obtained with non-invasive sampling methods. In Europe, including Croatia, PCB levels have been monitored for many years. This review summarises PCB trends in human milk across Europe. The trend is generally downward, with higher levels prevailing in urban areas near industrial plants. The highest PCB levels were reported in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

1. Skaare JU. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic mammals. In: Grotmol T, Bernhoft A, Eriksen GS, Flaten TP, editors. Endocrine Disrupters. Oslo: The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters; 2006. p. 25-8.

2. World Health Organization (WHO) European Environment and Health Information System. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Milk, 2009 [displayed 24 May 2018]. Available at http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/97032/4.3.-Persistant-Organic-Pollutantsm-EDITED_layouted_V2.pdf

3. Malisch K, Malisch R, Fiedler H. UNEP-coordinated Survey of Human Milk for Persistent Organic Pollutants. Guidelines for Organization, Sampling and Analysis, 2017 [displayed 24 May 2018]. Available at http://www.ua-bw.de/uploaddoc/cvuafr/UNEP_Guidance_HumanMilk2016_Final_2017_01_11_corr03_02_17.pdf

4. Fång J, Nyberg E, Winnberg U, Bignert A, Bergman Å. Spatial and temporal trends of the Stockholm Convention POPs in mothers’ milk -a global review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2015;22:8989-9041. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4080-z

5. Herceg Romanić S. Poliklorirani bifenili i organoklorovi pesticida s posebnim osvrtom na njihovu prisutnost u iglicama crnogoričnog drveća [Organochlorine compounds in needles of coniferous trees, in Croatian]. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2002;53:21-30.

6. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), 2000 [displayed 24 May 2018]. Available at https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp17.pdf

7. Kožul D, Herceg Romanić S. Razine i raspodjela PCB-a i organoklorovih pesticide u zraku, borovim iglicama i majčinu mlijeku [Levels and distribution of pcbs and organochlorine pesticides in the air, pine needles, and human milk, in Croatian]. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2010;61:339-56. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-61-2010-2007

8. Mills SA, Thal DI, Barney J. A summary of the 209 PCB congener nomenclature. Chemosphere 2007;68:1603-12. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.03.052

9. Ross G. The public health implications of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment. Ecotox Environ Safe 2004;59:275-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.06.003

10. Krauthacker B. Koncentracije organoklorovih spojeva u biološkom materijalu u skupini ispitanika u Hrvatskoj i procjena unosa tih spojeva u organizam [Levels and daily intakes of organochlorine compounds in population groups in Croatia, in Croatian]. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2000;51(Suppl):75-87.

11. Srogi K. Levels and congener distributions of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in environmental and human samples: a review. Environ Chem Lett 2008;6:1-28. doi: 10.1007/s10311-007-0105-2

12. Van den Berg M, Birnbaum Linda S, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tuomisto J, Tysklind M, Walker N, Petersonq RE. The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci 2006;93:223-41. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfl055

13. Wittsiepea J, Furstb P, Wilhelm M. The 2005 World Health Organization re-evaluation of TEFs for dioxins and dioxinl-ike compounds - What are the consequences for German human background levels? Int J Hyg Envir Heal 2007;210:335-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.01.038

14. Tesar C. POPs: What they are; how they are used; how they are transported. Northern Perspect 2000;26:2-5.

15. Kmetič I, Murati T, Kvakan K, Ivanjko M, Šimic B. Poliklorirani bifenili - toksičnost i rizici [Polychlorinated biphenyls - toxicity and risks, in Croatian]. Croat J Food Sci Technol 2012;4:71-80.

16. Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity. Lancet Neurol 2014;13:330-8. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70278-3

17. Conference of the Parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Sixth meeting Geneva, 28 April - 10 May 2013.

18. Hodak Kobasić V, Picer M, Picer N. The fate of polychlorinated biphenylsin karstic soil. Int J Environ Res 2015;9:567-74.

19. Van den Berg M, Kypke K, Kotz A, Tritscher A, Lee S, Magulova K, Fiedler H, Malisch R. WHO/UNEP global surveys of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs in human milk and benefit-risk evaluation of breastfeeding. Arch Toxicol 2017;91:83-6. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1802-z

20. Noren K, Meironyte D. Certain organochlorine and organobromine contaminants in Swedish human milk in perspective of past 20-30 years. Chemosphere 2000;40:1111-23. doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00360-4

21. Lignell S, Aune M, Darnerud PO, Cnattingius S, Glynn A. Persistent organochlorine and organobromine compounds in mother’s milk from Sweden 1996-2006: Compound-specific temporal trends. Environ Res 2009;109:760-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2009.04.011

22. Lignell S, Aune M, Glynn A, Cantillana T, Fridén U. Levels of persistent halogenated organic pollutants (POP) in mother’s milk from first-time mothers in Uppsala, Sweden – results from 2008/2010 and temporal trends 1996-2010. Report to the Swedish EPA (the Health-Related Environmental Monitoring Program) 2012 [displayed 24 May 2018]. Available at https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:710423/FULLTEXT01.pdf

23. Glynn A, Lignell S, Darnerud PO, Aune M, Halldin Ankarberg E, Bergdahl IA, Barregård L, Bensryd I. Regional differences in levels of chlorinated and brominated pollutants in mother’s milk from primiparous women in Sweden. Environ Int 2011;37:71-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2010.07.003

24. Fång J, Nyberg E, Bignert A, Bergman Å. Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers’ milk from Sweden, 1972-2011. Environ Int 2013;60:224-31. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2013.08.019

25. Krysiak-Baltyn K, Toppari J, Skakkebaek NE, Jensen TS, Virtanen HE, Schramm KW, Shen H, Vartiainen T, Kiviranta H, Taboureau O, Brunak S, Main KM. Country-specific chemical signatures of persistent environmental compounds in breast milk. Int J Androl 2010;33:270-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.00996.x

26. Antignac JP, Main KM, Virtanen HE, Boquien CY, Marchand P, Venisseau A, Guiffard I, Bichon E, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Legrand A, Boscher C, Skakkebæk NE, Toppari J, Le Bizec B. Country-specific chemical signatures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in breast milk of French, Danish and Finnish women. Environ Pollut 2016;218:728-38. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.07.069

27. Forns J, Mandal S, Iszatt N, Polder A, Thomsen C, Lyche JL, Stigum H, Vermeulen R, Eggesbo M. Novel application of statistical methods for analysis of multiple toxicants identifies DDT as a risk factor for early child behavioral problems. Environ Res 2016;151:91-100. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.014

28. Polder A, Thomsen C, Lindström G, Lřken KB, Skaare JU. Levels and temporal trends of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in individual human breast milk samples from Northern and Southern Norway. Chemosphere 2008;73:14-23. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.06.002

29. Becher G, Skaare JU, Polder A, Sletten B, Rossland OJ, Hansen HK, Ptashekas J. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in human milk from different parts of Norway and Lithuania. J Toxicol Environ Health 1995;46:133-48. doi: 10.1080/15287399509532024

30. Revich B, Shelepchikov A. Peresistent organic pollutants (POPs) hot spot in Russia. In: Mehmetli E, Koumanova B, editors. The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment. Dordrecht: Springer; 2008. p. 113-26. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6642-9_9

31. Poldera A, Gabrielsenb GW, Odlandc JØ, Savinovad TN, Tkacheve A, Løkena KB, Skaarea JU. Spatial and temporal changes of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) and brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Northern Russia. Sci Total Environ 2008;391:41-54. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.10.045

32. Bobovnikova T, Dibtseva A, Mitroshkov A, Pleskachevskaya G. Ecological assessment of a region with PCB emissions using samples of soil, vegetation breast milk: a case study. Sci Total Environ 1993;139/140:357-64. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(93)90033-3

33. Polder A, Becher G, Savinova TN, Skaarely JU. Dioxins, PCBs and some chlorinated pesticides in human milk from the Kola Peninsula, Russia. Chemosphere 1998;37:1795-806. doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(98)00245-8

34. Polder A, Odland JO, Tkachev A, Føreid S, Savinova TN, Skaare JU. Geographic variation of chlorinated pesticides, toxaphenes and PCBs in human milk from sub-arctic and arctic locations in Russia. Sci Total Environ 2003;306:179-95. doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00492-8

35. Bake MA, Linnika Z, Sudmalis P, Kočan A, Jursa S, Pike A, Ruce M. Assessment of the exposure of breast milk to persistent organic pollutants in Latvia. Int J Hyg Envir Heal 2007;210:483-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.01.016

36. Gladen BC, Päpke O, Shkyryak-Nyzhnyk ZA, Hryhorczuk DO, Little RE. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in breast milk from two cities in Ukraine. J Toxicol Environ Health A 1999;58:119-27. doi: 10.1080/009841099157331

37. Gladen BC, Monaghan SC, Lukyanova EM, Hulchiy OP, Shkyryak-Nyzhnyk ZA, Sericano JL, Little RE. Organochlorines in breast milk from two cities in Ukraine. Environ Health Persp 1999;107:459-62. PMCID: PMC1566556

38. Fängström B, Strid A, Grandjean P, Weihe P, Bergman A. A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands. Environ Health 2005;4:12. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-4-12

39. Čechová E, Scheringer M, Seifertová M, Mikeš O, Kroupová K, Kuta J, Forns J, Eggesbø M, Quaak I, de Cock M, van de Bor M, Patayová H, Palkovičová Murínová Ľ, Kočan A. Developmental neurotoxicants in human milk: Comparison of levels and intakes in three European countries. Sci Total Environ 2017;579:637-45. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.046

40. Čechová E, Seifertová M, Kukučka P, Vojta Š, Quaak I, de Cock M, van de Bor M, Kočan A. An effective clean-up technique for GC/EI-HRMS determination of developmental neurotoxicants in human breast milk. Anal Bioanal Chem 2017;409:1311-22. doi: 10.1007/s00216-016-0059-y

41. Chovancova J, Čonka K, Kočan A, Stachova Sejakova Z. PCDD, PCDF, PCB and PBDE concentrations in breast milk of mothers residing in selected areas of Slovakia. Chemosphere 2011;83:1383-90. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.070

42. Bencko V, Černá M, Jech L, Smíd J. Exposure of breast-fed children in the Czech Republic to PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs. Environ Toxicol Phar 2004;18:83-90. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2004.01.009

43. Mikeš O, Čupr P, Kohút L, Krsková A, Černá M. Fifteen years of monitoring of POPs in the breast milk, Czech Republic, 1994-2009: trends and factors. Environ Sci Pollut R 2012;19:1936-43. doi: 10.1007/s11356-012-0798-z

44. Černá M, Bencko V. Polyhalogenated hydrocarbons: Body burden of the Czech and Slovak populations. I. Polychlorinated biphenyls. Cent Eur J Public Heal 1999;7:67-71.

45. Černa M, Bencko V, Brabec M, Šmid J, Krskova A, Jech L. Exposure assessment of breast-fed infants in the Czech Republic to indicator PCBs and selected chlorinated pesticides: Area-related differences. Chemosphere 2010;78:160-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.09.062

46. Bencko V, Skulová, Z. Krečmerovác M, Djien Liemd AK. Selected polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in breast milk. Toxicol Lett 1998;96,97:341-5. doi: 10.1016/S0378-4274(98)00091-5

47. Bányiová K, Černá M, Mikeš O, Komprdová K, Sharma A, Gyalpo T, Čupr P, Scheringer M. Long-term time trends in human intake of POPs in the Czech Republic indicate a need for continuous monitoring. Environ Int 2017;108:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.008

48. Černá M, Puklová V, Hanzlíková L, Sochorová L, Kubínová R. 25 years of HBM in the Czech Republic. Int J Hyg Envir Heal 2017;220:3-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.08.004

49. National Institute of Public Health, Prague. Environmental Health Monitoring System in the Czech Republic. 2015

50. Jaraczewska K, Lulek J, Covaci A, Voorspoels S, Kaluba-Skotarczak A, Drews K, Schepens P. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human umbilical cord serum, maternal serum and milk from Wielkopolska region, Poland. Sci Total Environ 2006;372:20-31. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.03.030

51. Szyrwinska K, Lulek J. Exposure to specific polychlorinated biphenyls and some chlorinated pesticides via breast milk in Poland. Chemosphere 2007;66:1895-903. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.08.010

52. Hernik A, Góralczyk K, Struciński P, Czaja K, Kucharska A, Korcz W, Snopczyński T, Ludwicki J K. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk as markers of environmental exposure to these compounds. Ann Agric Environ Med 2011;18:113-8.

53. Vigh E, Colombo A, Benfenati E, Håkansson H, Berglund M, Bódis J, Garai J. Individual breast milk consumption and exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs in Hungarian infants: A time-course analysis of the first three months of lactation. Sci Total Environ 2013;449:336-44. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.024

54. Furst P, Furst C, Wilmers K. Human milk as a bioindicator for body burden of PCDDs, PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides, and PCBs. Environ Health Persp 1994;102(Suppl 1):187-93. PMCID: PMC1566908

55. Zietz BP, Hoopmann M, Funcke M, Huppmann R, Suchenwirth R, Gierden E. Long-term biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk from mothers living in northern Germany. Int J Hyg Envir Heal 2008;211:624-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.04.001

56. Raaba U, Schweglera U, Preissb U, Albrechtb M, Fromme H. Bavarian breast milk survey - pilot study and future developments. Int J Hyg Envir Heal 2007;210:341-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.01.033

57. Raaba U, Albrecht M, Preiss U, Völkel W, Schwegler U, Fromme H. Organochlorine compounds, nitro musks and perfluorinated substances in breast milk - results from Bavarian Monitoring of Breast Milk 2007/8. Chemosphere 2013;93:461-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.013

58. Wittsiepe J, Furst P, Schrey P, Lemm F, Kraft M, Eberwein G, Winneke G, Wilhelm M. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers. Chemosphere 2007;67:S286-94. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.118

59. Brucker-Davis F, Wagner-Mahler K, Bornebusch L, Delattre I, Patricia Ferrari P, Gal J, Boda-Buccino M, Pacini P, Tommasi C, Azuar P, Bongain A, Fénichel P. Exposure to selected endocrine disruptors and neonatal outcome of 86 healthy boys from Nice area (France). Chemosphere 2010;81:169-76. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.06.068

60. Focant JF, Fréry N, Bidondo ML, Eppe G, Scholl G, Saoudi A, Oleko A, Vandentorren S. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk from different regions of France. Sci Total Environ 2013;452-453:155-62. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.057

61. Croes K, Colles A, Koppen G, Govarts E, Bruckers L, Van de Mieroop E, Nelen V, Covaci A, Dirtu AC, Thomsen C, Haug LS, Becher G, Mampaey M, Schoeters G, Van Larebeke N, Baeyens W. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: A biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium). Chemosphere 2012;89:988-94. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.058

62. Kalantzi OI, Martin F L, Thomas GO, Alcock RE, Tang HR, Drury SC, Carmichael PL, Nicholson JK, Jones KC. Different levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chlorinated compounds in breast milk from two U.K. Regions. Environ Health Persp 2004;112:1085-91. doi: 10.1289/ehp.6991

63. Pratt IS, Anderson WA, Crowley D, Daly SF, Evans RI, Fernandes AR, Fitzgerald M, Geary MP, Keane DP, Malisch R, McBride J, Morrison JJ, Reilly A, Tlustos C. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: Impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland. Chemosphere 2012;88:865-72. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.03.095

64. Ingelido AM, Ballard T, Dellatte E, di Domenico A, Ferri F, Fulgenzi AR, Herrmann T, Iacovella N, Miniero R, Papke O, Grazia Porpora M, De Felip E. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in milk from Italian women living in Rome and Venice. Chemosphere 2007;67:S301-6. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.111

65. Abballe A, Ballard TJ, Dellatte E, di Domenico A, Ferri F, Fulgenzi AR, Grisanti G, Iacovella N, Ingelido AM, Malisch R, Miniero R, Grazia Porpora M, Risica S, Ziemacki G, De Felip E. Persistent environmental contaminants in human milk: Concentrations and time trends in Italy. Chemosphere 2008;73:S220-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.12.036

66. Schecter A, di Domenico A, Turrio-Baldassarri L, Ryan JJ. Dioxin and dibenzofuran levels in the milk of women from four geographical regions in Italy as compared to levels in other countries. Organohalogen Compounds 1992;9:227-30.

67. Larsen BR, Turrio-Baldassarri L, Nilsson T, Iacovella N, di Domenico A, Montagna M, Facchetti S. Toxic PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Italian human milk. Ecotox Environ Safe, 1994;28:1-13. doi: 10.1006/eesa.1994.1029

68. Ulaszewska MM, Zuccato E, Capri E, Iovine R, Colombo A, Rotella G, Generoso C, Grassi P, Melis M, Fanelli R. The effect of waste combustion on the occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk in Italy. Chemosphere 2011;82:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.044

69. Rivezzi G, Piscitelli P, Scortichini G, Giovannini A, Diletti G, Migliorati G, Ceci R, Rivezzi G, Cirasino L, Carideo P, Black DM, Garzillo Carmine, Giani U. A general model of dioxin contamination in breast milk: Results from a study on 94 women from the Caserta and Naples areas in Italy. Int J Env Res Pub He 2013;10:5953-70. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10115953

70. Alivernini S, Battistelli CL, Turrio-Baldassarri L. Human milk as a vector and an indicator of exposure to PCBs and PBDEs: Temporal trend of samples collected in Rome. B Environ Contam Tox 2011;87:21-5. doi: 10.1007/s00128-011-0262-7

71. Schuhmacher M, Kiviranta H, Ruokojärvi P, Nadal M, Domingo JL. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in breast milk of women from Catalonia, Spain: A follow-up study. Environ Int 2009;35:607-13. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.12.003

72. Schuhmacher M, Kiviranta H, Ruokojärvi P, Nadal M, Domingo JL. Levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in breast milk of women living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: Assessment of the temporal trend. Chemosphere 2013;93:1533-40. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.07.071

73. Gómara B, Herrero L, Pacepavicius G, Ohta S, Alaee M, González MJ. Occurrence of co-planar polybrominated/chlorinated biphenyls (PXBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of women from Spain. Chemosphere 2011;83:799-805. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.080

74. Krauthacker B, Votava-Raić A, Herceg Romanić S, Tješić-Drinković D, Tješić-Drinković Do, Reiner E. Persistent organochlorine compounds in human milk collectedin Croatia over two decades. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2009;57:616-22. doi: 10.1007/s00244-009-9301-3

75. Herceg Romanić S, Krauthacker B. Organochlorine pesticides and PCB congeners in human milk from two population groups in Croatia. B Environ Contam Tox 2006;76:705-11. doi: 10.1007/s00128-006-0977-z

76. Klinčić D, Herceg Romanić S, Matek Sarić M, Grzunov Letinić J, Dukić B. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia. Environ Toxicol Phar 2014;37:543-52. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2014.01.009

77. Klinčić D, Herceg Romanić S, Brčić Karačonji I, Matek Sarić M, Grzunov Letinić J, Brajenović N. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in humanmilk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae. Environ Toxicol Phar 2016;45:74-9. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2016.05.002

78. Perharic L, Vracko P. Development of national human biomonitoring programme in Slovenia. Int J Hyg Envir Heal 2012;215:180-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.10.014

79. Costopoulou D, Vassiliadou I, Papadopoulos A, Makropoulos V, Leondiadis L. Levels of dioxins, furans and PCBs in human serum and milk of people living in Greece. Chemosphere 2006;65:1462-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.04.034

Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.117
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.335

CiteScore 2017: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.341
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.494


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 175 175 43
PDF Downloads 176 176 50