Efficiency of advanced oxidation processes in lowering bisphenol A toxicity and oestrogenic activity in aqueous samples

Open access

Summary

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disruptor with adverse oestrogen-like effects eliciting adverse effects in humans and wildlife. For this reason it is necessary to set up an efficient removal of BPA from wastewaters, before they are discharged into surface waters. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of BPA removal from aqueous samples with photolytic, photocatalytic, and UV/H2O2 oxidation. BPA solutions were illuminated with different bulbs (halogen; 17 W UV, 254 nm; and 150 W UV, 365 nm) with or without the TiO2 P-25 catalyst or H2O2 (to accelerate degradation). Acute toxicity and oestrogenic activity of treated samples were determined using luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), water fleas (Daphnia magna), zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio), and Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay with genetically modified yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results confirmed that BPA is toxic and oestrogenically active. Chemical analysis showed a reduction of BPA levels after photolytic treatment and 100 % conversion of BPA by photocatalytic and UV/H2O2 oxidation. The toxicity and oestrogenic activity of BPA were largely reduced in photolytically treated samples. Photocatalytic oxidation, however, either did not reduce BPA toxic and oestrogenic effects or even increased them in comparison with the baseline, untreated BPA solution. Our findings suggest that chemical analysis is not sufficient to determine the efficiency of advanced oxidation processes in removing pollutants from water and needs to be complemented with biological tests.

1. Miege C, Karolak S, Gabet V, Jugan ML, Oziol L, Chevreuil M, Levi Y, Coquery M. Evaluation of estrogenic disrupting potency in aquatic environments and urban wastewaiters by combining chemical and biological analysis. Trends Anal Chem 2009;28:186-95. doi: 10.1016/j.trac.2008.11.007

2. Richardson ML, Bowron JM. The fate of pharmaceutical chemicals in the aquatic environment. J Pharm Pharmacol 1985;37:1-12. PMID: 2858520

3. Campbell CG, Borglin SE, Green B, Grayson A, Wozei E, Stringfellow WT. Biologically directed environmental monitoring, fate, and transport of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds in water: A review. Chemosphere 2006;65:1265-80. PMID: 16979218

4. Gomez M, Garralón G, Plaza F, Vílchez R, Hontoria E, Gomez MA. Rejection of endocrine disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, bisphenol F and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) by membrane technologies. Desalination 2007;212:79-91. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2006.11.004

5. Marttinen SK, Kettunen RH, Rintala JA. Occurance and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates. Sci Total Environ 2003;301:1-12. doi: 10.1016/ S0048-9697(02)00302-9

6. Stahlschmidt-Allner P, Allner B, Römbke J, Knacker T.Endocrine disrupters in the aquatic environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 1997;4:155-62.

7. Gross-Sorkin M Y, Roast S D, Brighty G C. Assessment of feminization of male fish in English rivers by environment agency of England and Wales. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114Suppl 1):147-51. PMID: 16818261

8. Lintelmann J, Katayama A, Kurihara N, Shore L, Wenzel A.Endocrine disruptors in the environment (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl Chem 2003;75:631-81. doi: 10.1351/ pac200375050631

9. Beck IC, Bruhn R, Gandrass J. Analysis of estrogenic activity in costal surface waters of the Baltic Sea using the Yeast estrogen screen. Chemosphere 2006;63:1870-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.10.022

10. Gabet V, Miege C, Bados P, Coquery M. Analysis of estrogens in environmental matrices. Trends Anal Chem 2007;26:1113-31. doi: 10.1016/j.trac.2007.10.003

11. The Dow Chemical Company. Product Safety Assessment: Bisphenol A. [displayed 14 February 2013]. Available at http://msdssearch.dow.com/PublishedLiteratureDOWCOM/dh_08b1/0901b803808b19e8.pdf?filepath=productsafety/pdfs/noreg/233-00250.pdf&fromPage=GetDoc

12. Mihaich EM, Friderich U, Caspers N, Hall AT, Klecka GM, Dimond SS, Staples CA, Ortego LS, Hentges SG. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of bisphenol A with aquatic invertebrates and plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 2009;72:1392-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.02.005

13. Rastkari N, Yunesian M, Ahmadkhaniha R. Levels of bisphenol A and bosphenol F in canned foods in Iranian markets. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 2011;8:95-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.02.005

14. Staples CA, Dorn PB, Klecka GM, O’Block ST, Harris LR. A review of the environmental fate, effects end exposure of Bisphenol A. Chemosphere 1998;36:2149-73. doi: 10.1016/ S0045-6535(97)10133-3

15. Yamamoto T, Yasuhara A, Shiraishi H, Nakasugi O. Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates. Chemosphere 2001;42:415-8. doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00079-5

16. Chiang K, Lim T M, Tsen L, Lee CC. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of bisphenol A by TiO2 and platinized TiO2. Appl Catal A Gen 2004;261:225-37. doi: 10.1016/j.apcata.2003.11.004

17. Huang YQ, Wong CKC, Zheng JS, Bouwman H, Barra R, Wahlström B, Neretin L, Wong MH. Bisphenol A (BPA) in China: A review of sources, environmental levels, and potential human health impacts. Environ Int 2012;42:91-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.04.010

18. Klavarioti M, Mantzavinos D, Kassinos D. Removal of residual pharmaceuticals from aqueous systems by advanced oxidation processes. Environ Int 2009;35:402-17. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.07.009

19. Andreozzi R, Caprio V, Marotta R, Radovnikovic A. Ozonation and H2O2/UV treatment of clofibric acid in water: a kinetic investigation. J Hazard Mater 2003;103:233-46. PMID: 14573342

20. Neamtu M, Frimmel FH. Degradation of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A by 254nm irradiation in different water matrices and effect on yeast cells. Water Res 2006;40:3745-50. PMID: 17028063

21. Rodriguez EM, Fernandez G, Klamerth N, Maldonado MI, Alvarez PM, Malato S. Efficiency of different solar advanced oxidation processes on the oxidation of bisphenol A in water. Appl Catal B Environ 2010;95:228-37. doi: 10.1016/j. apcatb.2009.12.027

22. Torres RA, Sarantakos G, Combet E, Retrier C, Pulgarin C.Sequential helio-photo-Fenton and sonication processes for the treatment of bisphenol A. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 2008;199:197-203. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2008.05.016

23. Olmez-Hanci T, Arslan-Alaton I, Genc B. Bisphenol A treatment by the hot persulfate process: Oxidation products and acute toxicity. J Hazard Mater 2013;263:283-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.01.032

24. Chen PJ, Linden KG, Hinton DE, Kashiwada S, Rosenfeldt EJ, Kullman SW. Biological assessment of bisphenol A degradation in water following direct photolysis and UV advanced oxidation. Chemosphere 2006;65:1094-102. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.04.048

25. Xu B, Gao N, Cheng H, Xia S, Rui M, Zhao D. Oxidative degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by UV/H2O2 process. J Hazard Mater 2008;162:954-9. doi: 10.1016/j. jhazmat.2008.05.122

26. Bistan M, Tišler T, Pintar A. Catalytic and photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous Bisphenol A solutions: removal, toxicity and estrogenicity. Ind Eng Chem Res 2012;51:8826-34. doi: 10.1021/ie201957z

27. Baumgartner V, Dytkiewitz E. HPTLC-Bioluminescence- Coupling using Vibrio fischeri. Conference Club de CCM 2010 [displayed 26 February 2014]. Available at http://www.clubdeccm.com/PDF/20101014/20101014_3-4-5temp.pdf

28. Parvez S, Venkataraman C, Mukherji S. A review on advantages of implementing the luminescence inhibition test (Vibrio fischeri) for acute toxicity prediction of chemicals.Environ Int 2006;32:265-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2005.08.022

29. Brennan SJ, Brougham CA, Roche JJ, Fogarty AM. Multigenerational effects of four selected environmental oestrogens on Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 2006;64:49-55. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.046

30. Forro L, Korovchinsky NM, Kotov AA, Petrusek A. Global diversity of cladocerans (Cladocera;Crustacea) in freshwater. Hydrobiology 2008;595:177-84. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_19

31. Nagel R. DarT: The embryo test with the zebrafish Danio rerio - a general model in ecotoxicology and toxicology.Alternat Animal Exper 2002;19:38-48. PMID: 12096329

32. ISO 11348-2; 1998. Water quality - Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) - Part 2: Method using liquid-dried bacteria.

33. ISO 6341; 1996. Water quality - Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea).

34. ISO 15088; 2007. Water quality - Determination of the acute toxicity of waste water to zebrafish eggs (Danio rerio).

35. Kammann U, Biselli S, Hühnerfuss H, Reineke N, Theobald N, Vobach M, Wosniok W. Genotoxic and teratogenic potential of marine sediment extracts investigated with comet assay and zebrafish test. Environ Pollut 2004;132:279-87.PMID: 15312940

36. Schulte C, Nagel R. Testing acute toxicity in the embryo of zebrafish, Brachydanio reri, as an alternative to the acute fish test: preliminary results. ATLA 1994;22:12-9.

37. Routledge EJ, Sumpter JP. Estrogenic activity of surfactants and some of their degradation products assessed using a recombinant yeast screen. Environ Toxicol Chem 1996;15:241-8. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620150303

38. Nomiyama K, Tanizaki T, Koga T, Arizono K, Shinohara R.Oxidative degradation of BPA using TiO2 in water, and transition of estrogenic activity in the degradation pathways.Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2007;52:8-15. doi: 10.1007/ s00244-005-0204-7

39. Arkema Inc. Hydrogen Peroxide 10-19 % (All Grades).Material Safety Data Sheet, Version 1.2. Philadelphia, PA: Arkema Inc.; 2009.

40. Li W, Seifert M, Xu Y, Hock B. Comparative study of estrogenic potencies of estradiol, tamoxifen, bisphenol-A and resveratrol with in vitro bioassay. Environ Int 2004;30:329-35. doi: 10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00183-1

Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.117
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.335



CiteScore 2017: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.341
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.494

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 144 144 37
PDF Downloads 72 72 21