Endocrine, Lifestyle, and Genetic Factors in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome

Open access

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a chronic, multi-component disease characterised by central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. Since MetS leads to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, development of certain cancers, and eventually to premature death, it is not surprising that it draws the attention of scientists around the world. The aetiopathology of MetS is complex and still not fully understood. This review focuses on the role of endocrine factors such as cortisol and insulin in the development of MetS. It also takes a look at some of the contributing lifestyle and genetic factors as well as at the current knowledge about its treatment.

1. Grundy SM. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2595-600. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-0372

2. Blaton VH, Korita I, Bulo A. How is metabolic syndrome related to dyslipidemia? Biochem Medica 2008;18:14-24. doi: 10.11613/BM.2008.003

3. Novelletto BF, Guzzinati S, Avogaro A. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with clinically prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Veneto Region, Northeastern Italy. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2012;10:56-62. doi: 10.1089/met.2011.0065

4. Jesmin S, Mia MS, Islam AM, Islam MR, Sultana SN, Zaedi S, Yamaguchi N, Okazaki O, Moroi M, Kimura S, Hiroe M. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among rural Bangladeshi women. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2012;95:e7-9. doi: 10.1016/ j.diabres.2011.09.025

5. Mattoo SK, Chakraborty K, Basu D, Ghosh A, Vijaya Kumar KG, Kulhara P. Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome in alcohol and opioid dependent inpatients. Indian J Med Res 2011;134:341-8. PMID:21985817

6. Pećin I, Reiner Ž, Jelaković B. Unos soli, metabolički sindrom i pretilost [Salt intake, metabolic syndrome, and obesity, in Croatian]. [displayed 12 May 2012]. Available at http://www. hcjz.hr/old/clanak.php?id=14134

7. Gobel RJ, Jensen SM, Frokiaer H, Molgaard C, Michaelsen KF. Obesity, inflammation and metabolic syndrome in Danish adolescents. Acta Paediatr 2012;101:192-200. doi: 10.1111/ j.1651-2227.2011.02493.x

8. Olza J, Gil-Campos M, Leis R, Bueno G, Aguilera cm, Valle M, Canete R, Tojo R, Moreno LA, Gil A. Presence of the metabolic syndrome in obese children at prepubertal age. Ann Nutr Metab 2011;58:343-50. doi: 10.1159/000331996

9. World Health Organisation (WHO). Defi nition, diagnosis and classifi cation of diabetes mellitus and its complications: report of a WHO consultation. Geneva: WHO; 1999.

10. Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, Krauss RM, Savage PJ, Smith SC, Jr., Spertus JA, Costa F. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientifi c Statement. Circulation 2005;112:2735-52. PMID: 16157765

11. Alberti KGMM, Zimmet PZ, Shaw JE; IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group. The metabolic syndrome: a new world-wide defi nition from the International Diebetes Federation consensus. Lancet 2005;366:1059-62. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67402-8

12. Balkau B, Charles MA. Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Diabet Med 1999;16:442-3. PMID: 10342346

13. Matsuzawa Y, Funahashi T, Nakamura T. The concept of metabolic syndrome: contribution of visceral fat accumulation and its molecular mechanism. J Atheroscler Thromb 2011;18:629-39. PMID: 21737960

14. Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M, Taskinen M-R, Groop L. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001;24:683-9. doi: 10.2337/diacare.24.4.683

15. Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, Kihara S. Adiponectin as a potential key player in metabolic syndrome - insights into atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. Int Cong Series 2004;1262:368-71. doi: 10.1016/j.ics.2004.01.091

16. Katzmarzyk PT, Church TS, Janssen I, Ross R, Blair SN. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and mortality: impact of cardiorespiratory fitness. Diabetes care 2005;28:391-7. PMID: 15677798

17. Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Parise H, Sullivan L, Meigs JB. Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 2005;112:3066-72. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.539528

18. Duvnjak L, Duvnjak M. The metabolic syndrome - an ongoing story. J Physiol Pharmacol 2009;60(Suppl 7):19-24. PMID: 20388942

19. Rosmond R. Role of stress in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2005;30:1-10. PMID: 15358437

20. Staab CA, Maser E. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is an important regulator at the interface of obesity and infl ammation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2010;119: 56-72.

21. Wang M. Inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in antidiabetic therapy. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2011;203:127-46. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-17214-4_6

22. Anagnostis P, Athyros VG, Tziomalos K, Karagiannis A, Mikhailidis DP. Clinical review: The pathogenetic role of cortisol in the metabolic syndrome: a hypothesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:2692-701. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-0370

23. Morton NM. Obesity and corticosteroids: 11β-Hydroxysteroid type 1 as a cause and therapeutic target in metabolic disease. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2010;316:154-64. doi: 10.1016/j. mce.2009.09.024

24. Ma X, Lian QQ, Dong Q, Ge RS. Environmental inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Toxicology 2011;285:83-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2011.04.007

25. Park SB, Blumenthal JA, Lee SY, Georgiades A. Association of cortisol and the metabolic syndrome in Korean men and women. J Korean Med Sci 2011;26:914-8. doi: 10.3346/ jkms.2011.26.7.914

26. Grossniklaus DA, Gary RA, Higgins MK, Dunbar SB. Biobehavioral and psychological differences between overweight adults with and without waist circumference risk.Res Nurs Health 2010;33:539-51. doi: 10.1002/nur.20411

27. Mai K, Reinecke F, Andres J, Bobbert T, Kraatz J, Wudy SA, Hartmann MF, Maser-Gluth C, Pfeiffer AF, Spranger J. Effects of hyperlipidaemia on glucocorticoid metabolism: results of a randomized controlled trial in healthy young women. Clin Endocrinol 2011;74:551-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.03972.x

28. Veldhuis JD, Roelfsema F, Iranmanesh A, Carroll BJ, Keenan DM, Pincus SM. Basal, pulsatile, entropic (patterned), and spiky (staccato-like) properties of ACTH secretion: impact of age, gender, and body mass index. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:4045-52. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-1143

29. Esteghamati A, Morteza A, Khalilzadeh O, Noshad S, Novin L, Nakhjavani M. Association of serum cortisol levels with parameters of metabolic syndrome in men and women. Clin Invest Med 2011;34:E131-7. PMID: 21631989

30. Inder WJ, Obeyesekere VR, Alford FP, Jang C. Skeletal muscle 11βHSD1 activity of nondiabetic subjects is unaltered in central obesity-associated insulin resistance. Horm Metab Res 2011;43:257-60. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1269905

31. Classen JB. Italian pediatric data support hypothesis that simultaneous epidemics of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome/obesity are polar opposite responses (i.e., symptoms) to a primary inflammatory condition. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2011;24:455-6. PMID: 21932581

32. Bjorntorp P. Neuroendocrine perturbations as a cause of insulin resistance. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999;15:427-41. PMID: 10634968

33. Duvnjak L, Bulum T, Metelko Ž. Hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Diabetol Croat 2008;37:83-9.

34. Landsberg L. Diet, obesity and hypertension: an hypothesis involving insulin, the sympathetic nervous system, and adaptive thermogenesis. Q J Med 1986;61:1081-90. PMID: 3310065

35. Balbo M, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep and its disturbances on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. I n t J E n d o c r i n o l 2 0 1 0 ; 2 0 1 0 : 1 - 1 6 . d o i : 10.1155/2010/759234

36. Kohsaka A, Waki H, Cui H, Gouraud SS, Maeda M. Integration of metabolic and cardiovascular diurnal rhythms by circadian clock. Endocr J 2012;59:447-56. PMID: 22361995

37. Laposky AD, Bass J, Kohsaka A, Turek FW. Sleep and circadian rhythms: Key components in the regulation of energy metabolism. FEBS Lett 2008;582:142-51. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.06.079

38. Scheer FA, Hilton MF, Mantzoros CS, Shea SA. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106:4453-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0808180106

39. Zvonic S, Floyd ZE, Mynatt RL, Gimble JM. Circadian rhythms and the regulation of metabolic tissue function and energy homeostasis. Obesity 2007;15:539-43. doi: 10.1038/ oby.2007.544

40. Morikawa Y, Nakagawa H, Miura K, Soyama Y, Ishizaki M, Kido T, Naruse Y, Suwazono Y, Nogawa K. Effect of shift work on body mass index and metabolic parameters. Scand J Work Environ Health 2007;33:45-50. doi: 10.5271/ sjweh.1063

41. Biggi N, Consonni D, Galluzzo V, Sogliani M, Costa G. Metabolic syndrome in permanent night workers. Chronobiol Int 2008;25:443-54. doi: 10.1080/07420520802114193

42. Manenschijn L, van Kruysbergen RG, de Jong FH, Koper JW, van Rossum EF. Shift work at young age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and body mass index. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:E1862-5. doi: 10.1210/ jc.2011-1551

43. Gangwisch JE, Heymsfi eld SB, Boden-Albala B, Buijs RM, Kreier F, Pickering TG, Rundle AG, Zammit GK, Malaspina D. Short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension: analyses of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hypertension 2006;47:833-9. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000217362.34748.e0

44. Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Papaliaga M, Calhoun S, Vela-Bueno A, Chrousos GP, Bixler EO. Short sleep duration and obesity: the role of emotional stress and sleep disturbances. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008;32:801-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2008.4

45. Kumari M, Badrick E, Ferrie J, Perski A, Marmot M, Chandola T. Self-reported sleep duration and sleep disturbance are independently associated with cortisol secretion in the Whitehall II study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:4801-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-0555

46. Paslakis G, Gilles M, Lederbogen F, Schilling C, Scharnholz B, Deuschle M. The effect of a 4-week treatment with reboxetine on metabolic parameters of depressed inpatients.Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2011;261:173-7. doi: 10.1007/s00406-010-0164-4

47. Vogelzangs N, Kritchevsky SB, Beekman ATF, Newman AB, Satterfi eld S, Simonsick EM, Yaffe K, Harris TB, Penninx BWJH. Depressive symptoms and change in abdominal obesity in older persons. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:1386-93. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.12.1386

48. Vogelzangs N, Suthers K, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Ble A, Schrager M, Bandinelli S, Lauretani F, Giannelli SV, Penninx BW. Hypercortisolemic depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome in late-life. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2007;32:151-9. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.11.009

49. Vaccarino V, Bremner DJ. Stress response and the metabolic syndrome. Cardiology/Hospital Physician Cardiology Board Review Manual 2005;11:1-12.

50. Capuron L, Su S, Miller AH, Bremner JD, Goldberg J, Vogt GJ, Maisano C, Jones J, Murrah NV, Vaccarino V. Depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome: Is infl ammation the underlying link? Biol Psychiatry 2008;64:896-900. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.05.019

51. Vogelzangs N, Duivis HE, Beekman ATF, Kluft C, Neuteboom J, Hoogendijk W, Smit JH, de Jonge P, Penninx BWJH. Association of depressive disorders, depression characteristics and antidepressant medication with infl ammation. Transl Psychiatry 2012;2:e79 doi: 10.1038/ tp.2012.8

52. Rege S. Antipsychotic induced weight gain in schizophrenia: mechanisms and management. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2008;42:369-81. doi: 10.1080/00048670801961123

53. Reynolds GP, Hill MJ, Kirk SL. The 5-HT2C receptor and antipsychoticinduced weight gain - mechanisms and genetics. J Psychopharmacol 2006;20(Suppl 4):15-8. PMID: 16785265

54. Walker EF, Cornblatt BA, Addington J, Cadenhead KS, Cannon TD, McGlashan TH, Perkins DO, Seidman LJ, Tsuang MT, Woods SW, Heinssen R. The relation of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication with baseline symptoms and symptom progression: a naturalistic study of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Sample. Schizophr Res 2009;115:50-7. doi: 10.1016/j. schres.2009.07.023.

55. Deng C, Weston-Green K, Huang XF. The role of histaminergic H1 and H3 receptors in food intake: a mechanism for atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain? Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2010;34:1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.11.009

56. van Reedt Dortland AKB, Vreeburg SA, Giltay EJ, Licht cmM, Vogelzangs N, van Veen T, de Geus EJC, Penninx BJWH, Zitman FG. The impact of stress systems and lifestyle on dyslipidemia and obesity in anxiety and depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013;38:209-18. doi: 10.1016/ j.psyneuen.2012.05.017

57. Albrecht U. Timing to perfection: the biology of central and peripheral circadian clocks. Neuron 2012;74:246-60. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.04.006

58. Kohsaka A, Bass J. A sense of time: how molecular clocks organize metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2007;18:4-11. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2006.11.005

59. Valenzuela FJ, Torres-Farfan C, Richter HG, Mendez N, Campino C, Torrealba F, Valenzuela GJ, Seron-Ferre M. Clock gene expression in adult primate suprachiasmatic nuclei and adrenal: is the adrenal a peripheral clock responsive to melatonin? Endocrinology 2008;149:1454-61. doi: 10.1210/en.2007-1518

60. Gomez-Abellan P, Hernandez-Morante JJ, Lujan JA, Madrid JA, Garaulet M. Clock genes are implicated in the human metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008;32:121-8. PMID: 17653067

61. Gomez-Santos C, Gomez-Abellan P, Madrid JA, Hernandez- Morante JJ, Lujan JA, Ordovas JM Garaulet M. Circadian rhythm of clock genes in human adipose explants. Obesity 2009;17:1481-5. doi: 10.1038/oby.2009.164

62. Gambineri A, Tomassoni F, Munarini A, Stimson RH, Mioni R, Pagotto U, Chapman KE, Andrew R, Mantovani V, Pasquali R, Walker BR. A combination of polymorphisms in HSD11B1 associates with in vivo 11β-HSD1 activity and metabolic syndrome in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol 2011;165:283-92. doi: 10.1530/EJE-11-0091

63. Torrecilla E, Fernandez-Vazquez G, Vicent D, Sanchez- Franco F, Barabash A, Cabrerizo L, Sanchez-Pernaute A, Torres AJ, Rubio MA. Liver upregulation of genes involved in cortisol production and action is associated with metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg 2012;22:478-86. doi: 10.1007/s11695-011-0524-9

64. Matsuzawa Y. The metabolic syndrome and adipocytokines. FEBS Lett 2006;580:2917-21. doi: 10.1016/j. febslet.2006.04.028

65. Funahashi T, Nakamura T, Shimomura I, Maeda K, Kuriyama H, Takahashi M, Arita Y, Kihara S, Matsuzawa Y. Role of adipocytokines on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in visceral obesity. Internal Med 1999;38:202-6. PMID: 10225688

66. Mertens I, Ballaux D, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, Van der Planken M, Verrijken A, Ruige JB, Van Gaal LF. Inverse relationship between plasminogen activator inhibitor-I activity and adiponectin in overweight and obese women. Interrelationship with visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, HDL-chol and infl ammation. Thromb Haemost 2005;94:1190-5. PMID: 16411393

67. Sorensen TI, Price RA, Stunkard AJ, Schulsinger F. Genetics of obesity in adult adoptees and their biological siblings. BMJ 1989;298:87-90. doi: 10.1136/bmj.298.6666.87

68. Ramachandrappa S, Farooqi IS. Genetic approaches to understanding human obesity. J Clin Invest 2011;121:2080-6. doi: 10.1172/JCI46044

69. Sebert S, Sharkey D, Budge H, Symonds ME. The early programming of metabolic health: is epigenetic setting the missing link? Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94(Suppl 6):1953S-8S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.001040

70. McCurdy CE, Bishop JM, Williams SM, Grayson BE, Smith MS, Friedman JE, Grove KL. Maternal high-fat diet triggers lipotoxicity in the fetal livers of nonhuman primates. J Clin Invest 2009;119:323-35. doi: 10.1172/JCI32

71. de Souza Leao LSC, de Moraes MM, de Carvalho GX, Koifman RJ. Nutritional interventions in Metabolic Syndrome: a systematic review. Arq Bras Cardiol 2011;97:260-5. PMID: 22030698

72. Iovino A, Paquot N, Scheen AJ. Reduction du risque metabolique associe a l’obesite en modulant l’exposition tissulaire au cortisol [Reduction of obesity-related metabolic risk by modulating tissue exposition to cortisol, in French]. Rev Med Suisse 2010;6:1608-12. PMID: 20853716

73. Su X, Vicker N, Thomas MP, Pradaux-Caggiano F, Halem H, Culler MD, Potter BV. Discovery of adamantyl heterocyclic ketones as potent 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors. ChemMedChem 2011;6:1439-51. doi: 10.1002/ cmdc.201100144

74. Su X, Pradaux-Caggiano F, Vicker N, Thomas MP, Halem H, Culler MD, Potter BV. Adamantyl ethanone pyridyl derivatives: potent and selective inhibitors of human 11β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. ChemMedChem 2011;6:1616-29. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201100182

75. Sun D, Wang M, Wang Z. Small molecule 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors. Curr Top Med Chem 2011;11:1464-75. PMID: 21510838

76. Guerciolini R. Mode of action of orlistat. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997;21(Suppl 3):S12-23. PMID: 9225172

77. Bsataki S. Diabetes mellitus and its treatment. Int J Diabet Metabol 2005;13: 11-34.

78. Francetić I, editor. Farmakoterapijski priručnik [Pharmacotherapy Handbook, in Croatian]. 6th ed. Zagreb: Medicinska naklada; 2010.

79. Hundal RS, Inzucchi SE. Metformin: new understandings, new uses. Drugs 2003;63:1879-94. PMID: 12930161

80. Sweetman SC, editor. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. 35th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2006.

81. Opie LH, Schall R. Old antihypertensives and new diabetes. J Hypertens 2004;22:1453-8. PMID: 15257162

82. Law MR, Wald NJ, Rudnicka AR. Quantifying effect of statins on low density lipoprotein cholesterol, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2003;326:1423. doi: 10.1136/bmj.326.7404.1423

Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.117
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.335



CiteScore 2017: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.341
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.494

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 162 162 18
PDF Downloads 68 68 5