Highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were originally developed for warfare or as agricultural pesticides. Today, OPs represent a serious threat to military personnel and civilians. This study investigates the in vivo decontamination of male Wistar rats percutaneously exposed to paraoxon and two potent nerve agents - soman (GD) and VX. Four commercial detergents were tested as decontaminants - NeodekontTM, ArgosTM, DermogelTM, and FloraFreeTM. Decontamination performed 2 min after exposure resulted in a higher survival rate in comparison with non-decontaminated controls. The decontamination effectiveness was expressed as protective ratio (PR, median lethal dose of agent in decontaminated animals divided by the median lethal dose of agent in untreated animals). The highest decontamination effectiveness was consistently achieved with ArgosTM (PR=2.3 to 64.8), followed by DermogelTM (PR=2.4 to 46.1). NeodekontTM and FloraFreeTM provided the lowest decontamination effectiveness, equivalent to distilled water (PR=1.0 to 43.2).
1. Greenfield RA, Brown BR, Hutchins JB, Iandolo JJ, Jackson R, Slater LN, Bronze MS. Microbiological, biological, and chemical weapons of warfare and terrorism. Am J Med Sci 2002;323:326-40.
2. Munro NB, Ambrose KR, Watson AP. Toxicity of the organophosphate chemical warfare agents GA, GB and VX: implications for public protection. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:18-38.
3. Gupta RC, editor. Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. 1st ed. London: Elsevier Inc; 2009.
4. Yang YC, Baker JA, Ward JR. Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Chem Rev 1992;92:1729-43. doi: 10.1021/cr00016a003
5. Tiwari S, Ghosh KK, Marek J, Kuca K. Functionalized surfactant mediated reactions of carboxylate, phosphate and sulphonate esters. J Phys Org Chem 2010;23:519-25. doi: 10.1002/poc.1635
6. Cabal J, Kassa J, Severa J. A comparison of the decontamination efficacy of foam-making blends based on cationic and nonionic tensides against organophosphorus compounds determined in vitro and in vivo. Hum Exp Toxicol 2003;22:507-14. doi: 10.1191/0960327103ht377oa
7. Amlot R, Larner J, Matar H, Jones DR, Carter H, Turner EA, Price SC, Chilcott RP. Comparative analysis of showering protocols for mass-casualty decontamination. Prehos Disaster Med 2010;25:435-39. doi: 10.1017/S1049023X00008529
8. Zilker T. Medical management of incidents with chemical warfare agents. Toxicology 2005;214:221-31. doi: 10.1016/ j.tox.2005.06.028
9. Misik J, Pavlikova R, Cabal J, Vodakova E, Kuca K. A comparison of decontamination effects of commercially available detergents in rats preexposed to topical sulphur mustard. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2013;32:135-9. doi: 10.3109/15569527.2012.730087
10. Lipnick RL, Cotruvo JA, Hill RN, Bruce RD, Stitzel KA, Walker AP, Chus I, Goddards M, Segal L, Springer JA, Myers RC. Comparison of the up-and-down, conventional LD50, and fixed-dose acute toxicity procedures. Food Chem Toxicol 1995;33:223-31.
11. Maxwell DM, Brecht KM, Koplovitz I, Sweeney RE. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition: does it explain the toxicity of organophosphorus compounds? Arch Toxicol 2006;80:756-60. doi: 10.1007/s00204-006-01
12. Bajgar J. Organophosphates/nerve agent poisoning: mechanism of action, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment. Adv Clin Chem 2004;38:151-216.
13. Dalton CH, Hattersley IJ, Rutter SJ, Chilcott RP. Absorption of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl-S-[2(diisopropylamino) ethyl] methyl phosphonothioate) through pig, human and guinea pig skin in vitro. Toxicol In Vitro 2006;20:1532-6. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2006.06.009
14. Moody RP, Maibach HI. Skin decontamination: Importance of the wash-in effect. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:1783-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.05.020
15. Hamilton MG, Hill I, Conley J, Sawyer TW, Caneva DC, Lundy PM. Clinical aspects of percutaneous poisoning by the chemical warfare agent VX. Effects of application site and decontamination. Mil Med 2004;169:856-62.
16. Joosen MJ, van den Boom JE, Kuijpers TM, Smit WC, Lucassen AB, van Helden HP. Long-term cognitive deficits accompanied by reduced neurogenesis after soman poisoning. Neurotoxicology 2009;30:72-80. doi: 10.1016/j. neuro.2008.11.010
17. Bjarnason S, Mikler J, Hill I, Tenn C, Garrett M, Caddy N, Sawyer TW. Comparison of selected skin decontaminant products and regimens against VX in domestic swine. Hum Exp Toxicol 2008;27:253-61. doi: 10.1177/ 0960327108090269
18. Braue EH Jr, Smith KH, Doxzon BF, Lumpkin HL, Clarkson ED. Efficacy studies of reactive skin decontamination lotion, M291 skin decontamination kit, 0.5% bleach, 1% soapy water, and skin exposure reduction paste against chemical warfare agents, Part 2: Guinea pigs challenged with soman. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2011;30:29-37. doi: 10.3109/15569527 .2010.515281
19. Loke WK, Lau SK, Lim JS, Tay GS, Koh CH. Wet decontamination-induced stratum corneum hydration: effects on the barrier function to diethylmalonate. J Appl Toxicol 1999; 19:285-90.doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1263(199907/08)19:4<275::AID-JAT578>3.0.CO;2-B
20. Misik J, Pavlikova R, Josse D, Cabal J, Kuca K. In vitro skin permeation and decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon under various physical conditions - evidence for a wash-in effect. Toxicol Mech Methods 2012;22:520-5. doi: 10.3109/15376516.2012.686535
21. Chilcott RP, Dalton CH, Hill I, Davison CM, Blohm KL, Clarkson ED, Hamilton MG. Evaluation of a barrier cream against the chemical warfare agent VX using the domestic white pig. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2005;97:35-8.
22. Taysse L, Daulon S, Delamanche S, Bellier B, Breton P. Skin decontamination of mustards and oranophosphates: comparative efficiency of RSDL and Fuller’s earth in domestic swine. Hum Exp Toxicol 2007;26:135-41. doi: 10.1177/0960327107071866
23. Kuca K, Jun D, Musilek K. Structural requirements of acetylcholinesterase reactivators. Mini Rev Med Chem 2006;6:269-77.
24. Kuca K, Jun D, Bajgar J. Currently used cholinesterase reactivators against nerve agent intoxication: comparison of their effectivity in vitro. Drug Chem Toxicol 2007;30:31-40.
25. Knezevic D, Tadic V, Katic S. Combined decontamination and parenteral therapy improve the chances of survival in rats percutaneously poisoned with organophosphorus insecticides. Acta Veterinaria (Beograd) 2001;51:187-95.
26. Dorandeu F, Taysse L, Boudry I, Foquin A, Herodin F, Mathieu J, Daulon S, Cruz C, Lallement G. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection. Hum Exp Toxicol 2011;30:470-90. doi: 10.1177/0960327110373615
27. Misik J, Pavlik M, Novotny L, Pavlikova R, Chilcott RP, Cabal J, Kuca K. In vivo decontamination of the nerve agent VX using the domestic swine model. Clin Toxicol 2012;50:807-11. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2012.720986