In current casting technology of cored, thin walled castings, the modifying coating is applied on the surface of wax pattern and, after the removal of the wax, is transferred to inner mould surface. This way the modification leading to grain refinement occur on the surface of the casting. In thin walled castings the modification effect can also be seen on the other (external) side of the casting. Proper reproduction of details in thin walled castings require high pouring temperature which intensify the chemical reactions on the mould – molten metal interface. This may lead to degradation of the surface of the castings. The core modification process is thought to circumvent this problem. The modifying coating is applied to the surface of the core. The degradation of internal surface of the casting is less relevant. The most important factor in this technology is “trough” modification – obtaining fine grained structure on the surface opposite to the surface reproduced by the core.
 Binczyk, F., Śleziona, J. & Michalska, J. (2010). Analysis of thermal-chemical interactions at the ceramic mould – molten nickel alloy interface. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 10(4), 5-9.
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 Binczyk, F., Cwajna, J., Sozańska, M. & Gradoń, P. (2013). The influence of impurities of ingots on the quality of castings made from nickel superalloy IN-713C. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 13(4), 5-9.
 Binczyk, F., Cwajna, J., Gradoń, P., Sozańska, M. & Cieśla, M. (2014). Metallurgical Quality of Feed Ingots and Castings Made from Nickel and Cobalt Superalloys. Solid State Phenomena. 212, 215-219.
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 Binczyk, F. & Śleziona, J. (2010). Effect of modification on the mechanical properties of IN-713C alloy. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 10(1), 195-198.
 Binczyk, F., Śleziona, J. & Gradoń, P. (2011). Modification of the macrostructure of nickel superalloys with cobalt nanoparticles. Composites. 1, 49-55.
 Binczyk, F., Śleziona, J., Szymszal, J. & Gradoń, P. (2011). Effect of technological parameters on structure of castings made from IN-713C nickel alloy. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 11(4), 9-13.