Wettability and Surface Free Energy of Ti(C,N) Coatings on Nickel-based Casting Prosthetic Alloys

Open access

Abstract

The production process of prosthetic restorations runs in two stages. In the first stage, the prosthetic foundation is produced of metal alloys. In the second stage, a facing material is applied on the produced element. In both stages, the wettability is significantly important, as well as the free surface energy relating to it. The quality of the obtained cast depends on the surface phenomena occurring between the metal alloy and the material of which the casting mould is made. The performed examinations also point to a relation between the ceramics joint and the base, depending on the wetting angle.

The aim of the presented paper was to examine influence of the composition of a Ti(C,N)-type coating on bases made of the Ni-Cr prosthetic alloy on the wettability and the surface free energy.

The test material were disks made of the Ni-Cr alloy with the diameter of 8 mm. The disks were divided into five groups, which were covered with Ti(C,N) coatings, with different amounts of C and N in the layer. In order to determine the surface free energy (γs), the wetting angle was measured. Two measure liquids were applied: distilled water and diiodomethane.

The obtained results of the measurements of the water-wetting angles suggest that together with the increase of the ratio of nitrogen to carbon in the Ti(C,N) coating, the surface hydrophobicity increases as well. In all the samples, one can see a large difference between the energy values of the polar and the apolar components. The high values of the polar components and the low values of the apolar ones make it possible to conclude that these surfaces exhibit a greater affinity to the polar groups than to the apolar ones.

On the basis of the analysis of the surface free energy, one can state that covering the alloy with Ti(C,N)-type coatings should not decrease the adhesion of the ceramics to the alloy, whereas TiC coatings should lead to the latter’s improvement. Due to their hydrophilicity, TiC coatings should decrease the adhesion of bacteria to the surface and hinder the formation of a bacterial biofilm.

[1] Pucka, G., Orlicki, R. & Rączka, K. (1986). Wettability of Mikromed 1-04, Wironit, Magnum and Remanium dental alloys. Prot. Stom. 36(1), 10-13 (in Polish).

[2] Park, S.W., Kim, J.M., Lim, H.P., Oh, G.J., Kim, H.S., Ong, J.L. & Lee, K.M. (2009). Gold and titanium nitride coatings on cast and machined commercially pure titanium to improve titanium-porcelain adhesion. Surf. Coat. Tech. 203, 3243-3249. DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2009.04.004.

[3] Lim, H.P., Kim, J.M., Lee, K.M. & Park, S.W. (2011). Fracture load of titanium crowns coated with gold or titanium nitride and bonded to low-fusing porcelain. J. Prosthet. Dent. 105, 164-170. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3913(11)60023-1.

[4] Elsaka, S.E., Hamouda, I.M., Elewady, Y.A., Abouelatta, O.B. & Swain, M.V. (2010). Effect of chromium interlayer on the shear bond strength between porcelain and pure titanium. Dent. Mater. 26(8), 793-798. DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2010.04.004.

[5] Homann, F., Waddell, J.N. & Swain, M.V. (2006). Influence of water, loading rate and bonder on the adhesion of porcelain to titanium. J. Dent. 34, 485-490.

[6] Suansuwan, N. & Swain, M.V. (2003). Adhesion of porcelain to titanium and titanium alloy. J. Dent. 31, 509-518.

[7] Yamada, K., Suansuwan, N., Sumii, T. & Swain, M.V. (2001). Comparison of the bonding strength of porcelan with different bonding systems and alloys as measured by interfacial toughness. J. Dent. Research. 80, 754.

[8] Yamada, K., Onizuka, T., Endo, K., Ohno, H. & Swain, M.V. (2005). The influence of Goldbonder and pre-hest treatment on the adhesion of titanium alloy and porcelain. J. Oral Rehabil. 32(3), 213-220.

[9] Zhang, H., Guo, T.W., Song, Z.X., Wang, X.J. & Xu, K.W. (2007). The effect of ZrSiN diffusion barrier on the bonding strength of titanium porcelain. Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(9-11), 5637-5640.

[10] Banaszek, K., Pietnicki, K. & Klimek, L. Effect of carbon and nitrogen content in Ti(C,N) coatings on selected mechanical properties. Metal Forming (in press).

[11] Sokołowski, J. (2001). Usefulness evaluation of titanium nitride protective coatings on metal elements of prosthetic restorations. Habilitation thesis. Medical Universit of Lodz, Lodz, Poland (in Polish).

[12] Klimek, L. (2006). Adhesion of bacteria on modified surfaces of prosthodontic Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Initial examinations. Surface Engineering. 4, 64-68 (in Polish).

[13] Klimek, L., Jakubowski, W. & Banaszek, K. (2007). Bacteria adhesion to modified surfaces of prosthodontic Ni-Cr-Mo alloy. A preliminary study. Dental Prosthetics. 1(LVII), 60-64 (in Polish).

[14] Sharifa Al-Shehri, A., Hamdi, M.A. & Wilson, C.A. (1996). Influence of lamination on the flexural strength of a dental castable glass ceramic. J. Prosthet. Dent. 1, 23-28. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(96)90341-8.

[15] Mc Lean, J.V. (1991). The science and art of dental ceramics. Oper. Dent. 16, 149-156.

[16] Oilo, G. (1988). Flexural strength and internal defects of some dental porcelains. Acta. Odontol. Scand. 46, 313-322.

[17] Craig, R.G. (2006). Dental materials. Wrocław: Elsevier Urban & Partner (in Polish).

[18] Dann, J.R. (1970). Forces involved in the adhesive process. I Critical surface tensions of polymeric solids as determined with polar liquids. J. Coll. Interf. Sci. 32, 302-320.

[19] Pieczyńska, D., Ostaszewska, U., Bieliński, D.M. & Jagielski, J. (2011). Modification of polymers with the application of ion beam bombardment. Part I. History, recent developments, and perspectives for development. Polymers. 56(6), 439-451. (in Polish).

[20] Katsikogianni, M. & Missirlis, Y.F. (2004). Concise review of mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to biomaterials and of techniques used in estimating bacteria-material interactions. Eur. Cell Mater. 8, 37-57.

[21] Park, B.S., Heo, S.J., Kim, C.S., Oh, J.E., Kim, J.M., Lee, G., Park, W.H., Chung, C.P. & Min, B.M. (2005). Effects of adhesion molecules on the behavior of osteoblast-like cells and normal human fibroblasts on different titanium surfaces. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A. 74, 640-651.

[22] Sobolewska, E., Frączak, B., Błażewicz, S., Seńko, K. & Lipski, M. (2009). Comparison of wetting contact angle of basic prosthetic materials used in the fabrication of removable dentures in an in vitro study. Dental Prosthetics. 6(LIX), 401-406 (in Polish).

[23] Gristina, A.G. (1987). Biomaterial-centered infection: microbial adhesion versus tissue integration. Science. 237, 1588-1595.

[24] Kazemzadeh-Narbat, M., Lai, B.F., Ding, C., Kizhakkedathu, J.N., Hancock, R.E. & Wang, R. (2013). Multilayered coating on titanium for controlled release of antimicrobial peptides for the prevention of implant-associated infections. Biomaterials. 34, 5969-5977. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.04.036.

[25] Ochsner, P.E., Majewski, M. & Plaass, C. (2006). Infection after osteosynthesis: a summary of the scientific presentations at the annual Swiss AO meeting 2005 in Liestal. In Annual Swiss AO meeting, 2005L 117-119. Injury: Elsevier Sci Ltd.

[26] O'Brien, W.J. & Ryge, G. (1965). Wettability of poly(methyl-methacrylate) treated with silicone tetrachlorid. J. Prosthet. Dent. 15, 304-308.

[27] Boucher, L.J., Ellinger, C., Lutes, M. & Hickey, J.C. (1968). The effect of a microlayer of silica on the retention of mandibular complete dentures. J. Prosthet. Dent. 19, 581-586.

[28] Gesser, H.D. & Castaldi, C.R. (1971). The preparation and evaluation of wetting dentures for adhesion and retention. J. Prosthet. Dent. 25, 235-243.

Archives of Foundry Engineering

The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.42

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.192
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.316

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 126 121 5
PDF Downloads 49 48 5