Characteristics of Graphite Precipitates in Aluminium Cast Iron Treated with Cerium Mixture

Open access


The work determined the influence of aluminium in the amount from about 1% to about 7% on the graphite precipitates in cast iron with relatively high silicon content (3.4% to 3.90%) and low manganese content (about 0.1%). The cast iron was spheroidized with cerium mixture and graphitized with ferrosilicon. The performed treatment resulted in occurring of compact graphite precipitates, mainly nodular and vermicular, of various size. The following parameters were determined: the area percentage occupied by graphite, perimeters of graphite precipitates per unit area, and the number of graphite precipitates per unit area. The examinations were performed by means of computer image analyser, taking into account four classes of shape factor. It was found that as the aluminium content in cast iron increases from about 1.1% to about 3.4%, the number of graphite precipitates rises from about 700 to about 1000 per square mm. For higher Al content (4.2% to 6.8%) this number falls within the range of 1300 - 1500 precipitates/mm2. The degree of cast iron spheroidization increases with an increase in aluminium content within the examined range, though when Al content exceeds about 2.8%, the area occupied by graphite decreases. The average size of graphite precipitates is equal to 11-15 μm in cast iron containing aluminium in the quantity from about 1.1% to about 3.4%, and for higher Al content it decreases to about 6 μm.

[1] Sakwa, W. (1974). Cast iron. Katowice: Ed. Śląsk. (in Polish)

[2] Podrzucki, C. (1991). Cast iron. Structure, properties, applications. Cracow: Ed. ZG STOP. (in Polish)

[3] Soiński, M.S. (2012). Low-aluminium cast iron. Częstochowa: Ed. of the Faculty of Process and Material Engineering and Applied Physics of Częstochowa University of Technology. (in Polish)

[4] Henke, F. (1966). Aluminium in cast iron.. Giesserei - Praxis. (5), 76-82. (in German)

[5] Defrancq, Ch., Van Eeghem, J. & De Sy, A. (1971). On modification of grey cast iron in the Fe-Al-C system; development of new high-strength cast iron with flake graphite. Giesserei - Prax. (3), 33-40. (in German)

[6] Parent-Simonin, S. & Margerie, J-C. (1975). Studies on properties of iron-carbon-aluminium (Fe-C-Al) castings. Fonderie. (343), 87-99. (in French)

[7] Kuznecov, B.L. (1978). Technology of achieving aluminium cast iron with nodular and vermicular graphite. Litejnoe Proizvod. (6), 6-7. (in Russian)

[8] Suchodolskaja, E.A., Zatolokin. E.A. & Danilenko, E.A. (1974). Application of low-silicon aluminium cast iron for automotive industry castings. Litejnoe Proizvod. (2), 19-20. (in Russian)

[9] Nechtelberger, E., Hummer, R. & Thury, W. (1977). Aluminium cast iron with vermicular graphite. Giesserei - Prax. (23), 387-388. (in German)

[10] Szreniawski, J. & Pietrowski, S. (1975). Structure and mechanical properties of die-cast low-alloyed aluminium cast iron. Prz. Odlew. (Foundry Review), 25(2), 107-108. (in Polish)

[11] Bobro, Ju.G. (1964). Aluminium cast irons. Charkov: Izd. Charkovskogo Univ.

[12] Laplanche, H. (1970). Aluminium castings. (Les fontes á l’aluminium). Metall. Constr. Mec. 102(9), 499÷512.

[13] Bobro, Ju.G. (1976). Peculiarities of structure and properties of aluminium cast iron. In: 43rd International Foundry Congress. Bucurest. 1976 (26). (in French)

[14] Soiński, M.S., Jakubus, A., Kordas, P. & Skurka, K. (2014). The Effect of Aluminium on Graphitization of Cast Iron Treated with Cerium Mixture. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 14 (2), 95-100.

[15] Bobro, Ju.G. (1976). Alloyed cast iron. Moskva: Izd. Metallurgija. (in Russian)

[16] Löhberg, K. & Ueberschaer, A. (1969). Stable equilibrium system of iron-rich carbon-saturated carbon-iron-siliconaluminium alloys. Giessereiforsch. (4), 163÷169. (in German)

[17] Walson, R.P. (1987). Properties of aluminium cast iron. Giesserei-Prax. (7), 97÷103. (in German)

[18] Soiński, M.S. (2001). Spheroidization of low-aluminium silicon cast iron with cerium mixture. Częstochowa: Ed. of the Faculty of Process and Material Engineering and Applied Physics of Częstochowa University of Technology. (in Polish)

[19] Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 945-1: Microstructure of cast irons. Part 1: Graphite classification by visual analysis.

[20] Soiński, M.S. (1986) Application of Shape Measurement of Graphite Precipitates in Cast Iron in Optimising the Spheroidizing Process. Acta Stereologica. 5, (2), 311-317.

[21] Cybo, J. Jura, S. (1995). Functional description of isometric structures in quantitative metallography. Gliwice: Ed. of Silesian University of Technology.

Archives of Foundry Engineering

The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.42

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.192
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.316


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 206 183 13
PDF Downloads 105 101 7