The research objective was to study temporal and spatial relations between specific phosphorus species as well as to examine total phosphorus content in the bottom sediments of an anthropogenic, hypertrophic limnic ecosystem Rybnik Reservoir, functioning under thermal pollution conditions. The chemical extraction procedure for the speciation of bioavailable phosphorus forms was used. It was found that available algae phosphorus was the most dominant phosphorus species in both sediment layers (83%), while the lower share was readily desorbed phosphorus form (0.1%). The phosphorus species concentrations depended on the organic matter concentration. The differences between phosphorus species contents in the upper (5 cm) and lower (15–20 cm) sediment core layers were low. The biologically active sediment layer extended from the sediment surface to at least 20 cm depth of the sediment core. Distributions of the concentrations within the year and at specific sampling points resulted from the variability observed for particular points and transformation intensity. Furthermore in the following study, the reaction rate constant for the increase and decrease in the concentrations of the phosphorus species in sediments was given. It was indicated that the speed of the phosphorus species transformations was affected by the environment temperature. In the heated water discharge zone (water temp. 17–35°C) the concentrations of selected speciation phosphorus forms increased more than in the dam zone (5–25°C). It was also found that the abundance of the bottom sediments with phosphorus species was related to the oblong and transverse asymmetry of reservoir depth.
Aimin, Z., Hongxiao, T. & Dongsheng, W. (2005). Phosphorus adsorption on natural sediments: Modelling and effect of pH and sediment composition, Water Research, 38, pp. 1245–1254.
Aydin, I., Aydin, F., Saydut, A. & Hamamci, C. (2009). A sequential extraction to determine the distribution of phosphorus in the seawater and marine surface sediment, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168, pp. 664–669.
Bartoszek, L. (2007). Phosphorus release from the bottom sediment, Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, 42, 240, pp. 5–15.
Bostrom, B., Persson, G. & Broberg, B. (1998). Bioavailability of different phosphorus forms in freshwater systems, Hydrobiologia, 170, pp. 133–155.
Dunalska, J., Staehr, P.A., Jaworska, B. & Górniak, D. (2014). Ecosystem metabolism in a lake restored by hypolimnetic withdrawal, Ecological Engineering, 73, pp. 616–623.
Frankowski, L., Bolałek, J. & Szostek, A. (2002). Phosphorus in bottom sediments of Pomerania Bay (Southern altic-Poland), Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 54, pp. 1027–1038.
Gawrońska, H., Łopata, M. & Jaworska, B. (2008). The effectiveness of the phosphorus inactivation methods in reducing the trophy of lakes of different morphometric and hydrological features, Limnological Review, 7, 1, pp. 27–34.
Gonsiorczyk, T., Casper, P. & Koschel, R. (1998). Phosphorus-binding forms in the sediment of an oligotrophic and a eutrophic hardwater lake of the Baltic lake district (Germany), Water Science of Technology, 37, pp. 51–58.
Kaiserli, A., Voutsa, D. & Samara, C. (2002). Phosphorus fractionation in lake sediments – Lakes Volvi and Koronia, N. Greece, Chemosphere, 46, pp. 1147–1155.
Kostecki, M. (2000). The suspended solids as an element of pollution of anthropogenic water ecosystem for example of Dzierżno Duże dam-reservoir (Silesia), Archives of Environmental Protection, 26, 4, pp.75–94. (in Polish)
Kostecki, M. (2002). Atmospheric precipitation as the element of pollutants budget on dam-reservoirs of the Kłodnica Water Junction, Archives of Environmental Protection, 28, 2, pp. 45–59. (in Polish)
Kostecki, M. & Kozłowski, J. (2002). Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the water and bottom sediments of Gliwice Channel, Archives of Environmental Protection, 28, 2, pp. 71–87. (in Polish)
Kostecki, M. (2003). Allocation and transformation of selected pollutants in reservoirs of Kłodnica River Water-Junction system and The Canal Gliwice, Works & Studies, Zabrze 2003. (in Polish)
Kostecki, M. (2004). Anthropopression impact on the formation of thermal structure on the Rybnik dam-reservoir, Archives of Environmental Protection, 4, pp. 41–53. (in Polish)
Kostecki, M. (2005a). The thermal conditions specificity of Rybnik reservoir as a result of discharge of heated water, Problemy Ekologii, 3, pp. 110–114. (in Polish)
Kostecki, M. (2005b). About the importance and necessity of protecting the anthropogenic water reservoirs of the Western Water Node of the Upper Silesia Industrial District, Problemy Ekologii, 9, 4, pp. 193–201. (in Polish)
Kostecki, M. & Mazierski, J. (2008). Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediments in presence of calcium peroxide, Przemysł Chemiczny, 3, pp. 278–283. (in Polish)
Kostecki, M. & Nocoń, W. (2010). The role of shallow, lowland dam reservoir in the river-lake-river system. Part II. Changes and equation of phosphorus in the Słupsko Dam-Reservoir, Inżynieria i Ochrona Środowiska, 13, 4, pp. 245–257. (in Polish)
Kostecki, M. & Suschka, J. (2013). The successful results of Pławniowice reservoir (Upper Silesia Region – South of Poland) restoration by hypolimnetic withdrawal, Archives of Environmental Protection, 39, 1, pp. 17–25.
Kostecki, M. (2014). Anthropogenic water reservoir Pławniowice restoration by hypolimnetic withdrawal method: limnological study, Works & Studies, Zabrze 2014. (in Polish)
Koszelnik, P. (2007). Atmosphere deposition as a source of nitrogen and phosphorus loads into Rzeszow reservoir, SE Poland, Environmental Protection Engineering, 33, 2, pp. 157–164.
Kowalczewska-Madura, K., Jeszke, B., Furmanek, S. & Gołdyn, R. (2005). Spatial and seasonal variation of phosphorus fraction in bottom sediments of the hypertrophic Swarzędzkie Lake (W Poland), Limnological Review, 5, pp. 123–128.
Kowalczewska-Madura, K., Gołdyn, R. & Dera, M. (2015). Spatial and seasonal changes of phosphorus internal loading in two lakes with different trophy, Ecological Engineering, 74, pp. 187–195.
Nurnberg, G., Hartley, R. & Davis, E. (1987). Hypolimnetic withdrawal in two north American lakes with anoxic phosphorus release from the sediment, Water Research, 21, 8, pp. 923–928.
Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S. & Dean, L.A. (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate, Circular/United States Department of Agriculture, Washington 1954.
Pettersson, K., Bostrom, B. & Jacobsen, O.S. (1988). Phosphorus in sediments – speciation and analysis, Hydrobiologia, 170, pp. 91–101.
Sapek, A. & Sapek, B. (2011). Phosphorus in atmospheric deposition, Ochrona Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych, 50, pp. 122–133. (in Polish)
Sharpley, A.N., Troeger, W.W. & Smith, S.J. (1991). The measurement of bioavailable phosphorus in agricultural runoff, Journal Environmental Quality, 20, pp. 235–238.
Siuda, W. (2001). Enzymatic regeneration of orthophosphate in lake water, Postępy Mikrobiologii, 40, 2, pp. 187–217. (in Polish)
Smal, H., Ligęza, S., Baran, S., Wójcikowska-Kapusta, A. & Obroślak, R. (2013). Nitrogen and phosphorus in bottom sediments of two small dam reservoirs, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 22, 5, pp. 1479–1489.
Smal, H., Ligęza, S,. Baran, S. & Wójcikowska-Kapusta, A. (2015). Quantity and quality of organic carbon in bottom sediments of two upland dam reservoirs in Poland, Environmental Protection Engineering, 41, pp. 95–110.
Sondergaard, M. (1988). Seasonal variations in the loosely sorbed phosphorus fraction of the sediment of a shallow and hypereutrophic lake, Environmental Geology and Water Science, 11, 1, pp. 115–121.
Stawecki, K., Zdanowski, B. & Dunalska, J. (2004). Seasonal changes in phosphorus concentration in the heat waters of Lake Mikorzyńskie, Limnological Review, 4, pp. 249–254.
Wang, L. & Liang, T. (2015). Distribution characteristics of phosphorus in the sediments and overlying water of Poyang Lake, PLoS One, 10, 5:e0125859.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125859.
Wiliams, J.D.H., Shear, H. & Thomas, R.L. (1980). Availability to Scenedesmus quadricauda of different forms of phosphorus in sedimentary materials from the Great Lakes, Limnology and Oceanography, 25, 1, pp. 1–11.
Zhou, Q. & Zhu, Y. (1999). Simulated studies on degradation of organic matter and release of CO2 and CH4 in sediment from West Lake under various oxygen-supply conditions, Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 19, pp. 11–15.
Zhou, Q., Gibson, E. & Foy, R.H. (2000). Long-term changes of nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to a large lake in North-West Ireland, Water Research, 34, pp. 922–926.
Zhou, Q., Gibson, Ch. E. & Yinmei, Z. (2001). Evaluation of phosphorus bioavailability in sediments of three contrasting lakes in China and the UK, Chemosphere, 42, pp. 221–225.
PN-C-04541:1978 – Water and Sewage – Determination of the dry residue, residue on ignition, loss on ignition and solute substances, mineral solute substances and volatile solute substances. (in Polish)