This research was conducted to study the adsorption of ammonium ions onto pumice as a natural and low-cost adsorbent. The physico-chemical properties of the pumice granular were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Modeling and optimization of a NH4+ sorption process was accomplished by varying four independent parameters (pumice dosage, initial ammonium ion concentration, mixing rate and contact time) using a central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions for maximum removal of NH4+ (70.3%) were found to be 100 g, 20 mg/l, 300 rpm and 180 min, for pumice dosage, initial NH4+ ion concentration, mixing rate and contact time. It was found that the NH4+ adsorption on the pumice granular was dependent on adsorbent dosage and initial ammonium ion concentration. NH4+ was increased due to decrease the initial concentration of NH4 and increase the contact time, mixing rate and amount of adsorbent.
Akbal, F. (2005) Adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto pumice powder, Journal of colloid and interface science, 286(2), pp. 455–458.
Arslan, A. & Veli, S. (2012) Zeolite 13X for adsorption of ammonium ions from aqueous solutions and hen slaughterhouse wastewaters, Journal of the Taiwan institute of chemical engineers, 43(3), pp. 393–398.
Bandosz, T.J. & Petit, C. (2009) On the reactive adsorption of ammonia on activated carbons modified by impregnation with inorganic compounds, Journal of colloid and interface science, 338(2), pp. 329–345.
Bardakçi, B. & Bahçeli, S. (2010) FTIR study of modification of transition metal on zeolites for adsorption, Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, 48, pp. 615–620.
Baş, D. & Boyacı, İ.H. (2007) Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology Journal of Food Engineering, 78(3), pp. 836–845.
Bekaroglu, S.K., Yigit, N., Karanfil, T. & Kitis, M. (2010) The adsorptive removal of disinfection by-product precursors in a high-SUVA water using iron oxide-coated pumice and volcanic slag particles, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 183(1), pp. 389–394.
Bolen, W.P. (2003) Pumice and pumicite. US Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook.
Box, G.E. & Draper, N.R. (1987) Empirical model-building and response surfaces, Wiley New York 1987.
Demir, A., Gunay, A. & Debik, E. (2002) Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by ion-exchange using packed bed natural zeolite, Water SA, 28(3), pp. 329–336.
Ersoy, B., Sariisik, A., Dikmen, S. & Sariisik, G. (2010) Characterization of acidic pumice and determination of its electrokinetic properties in water, Powder Technology, 197(1), pp. 129–135.
Grim, R.E. (1968) Clay mineralogy. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 596.
Gunduz, L., Sariisik, A., Tozacan, B., Davraz, M., Ugur, I. & Cankiran, O. (1998) Pumice technology. Skin 1.
Karapınar, N. (2009) Application of natural zeolite for phosphorus and ammonium removal from aqueous solutions, Journal of hazardous materials, 170(2), pp. 1186–1191.
Khosravi, R., Fazlzadehdavil, M., Barikbin, B. & Taghizadeh, A.A. (2014) Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by granular and powdered Peganum Harmala, Applied Surface Science, 292, pp. 670–677.
Khuri, A.I. & Cornell, J.A. (1996) Response surfaces: designs and analyses, CRC press 1996.
Kusic, H., Koprivanac, N. & Bozic, A.L. (2011) Treatment of chlorophenols in water matrix by UV/ferrioxalate system: Part I. Key process parameter evaluation by response surface methodology, Desalination, 279(1), pp. 258–268.
Lee, K.-M. & Gilmore, D.F. (2005) Formulation and process modeling of biopolymer (polyhydroxyalkanoates: PHAs) production from industrial wastes by novel crossed experimental design, Process Biochemistry, 40(1), pp. 229–246.
Lura, P., Bentz, D.P., Lange, D.A., Kovler, K. & Bentur, A. (2004) Pumice aggregates for internal water curing, pp. 22–24, RILEM Publications SARL Evanston.
Mansouri, Y., Zinatizadeh, A.A., Mohammadi, P., Irandoust, M., Akhbari, A. & Davoodi, R. (2012) Hydraulic characteristics analysis of an anaerobic rotatory biological contactor (AnRBC) using tracer experiments and response surface methodology (RSM), Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 29(7), pp. 891–902.
Mason, R.L., Gunst, R.F. & Hess, J.L. (2003) Statistical design and analysis of experiments: with applications to engineering and science, John Wiley & Sons 2003.
Moraci, N. & Calabrò, P.S. (2010) Heavy metals removal and hydraulic performance in zero-valent iron/pumice permeable reactive barriers, Journal of Environmental Management, 91(11), pp. 2336–2341.
Ozturk, B. & Yildirim, Y. (2008) Investigation of sorption capacity of pumice for SO 2 capture, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 86(1), pp. 31–36.
Panuccio, M.R., Sorgonà, A., Rizzo, M. & Cacco, G. (2009) Cadmium adsorption on vermiculite, zeolite and pumice: batch experimental studies, Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), pp. 364–374.
Pirsaheb, M., Dargahi, A., Hazrati, S. & Fazlzadehdavil, M. (2014) Removal of diazinon and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) from aqueous solutions by granular-activated carbon, Desalination and Water Treatment, 52(22–24), pp. 4350–4355.
Vassileva, P. & Voikova, D. (2009) Investigation on natural and pretreated Bulgarian clinoptilolite for ammonium ions removal from aqueous solutions, Journal of hazardous materials, 170(2), pp. 948–953.
Wang, M., Liao, L., Zhang, X., Li, Z., Xia, Z. & Cao, W. (2011) Adsorption of low-concentration ammonium onto vermiculite from Hebei province, China, Clays and Clay Minerals, 59(5), pp. 459–465.
Yuan, L. & Kusuda, T. (2005) Adsorption of ammonium and nitrate ions by poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) gel and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-chlorophyllin) gel in different states, Journal of applied polymer science, 96(6), pp. 2367–2372.
Zhu, K., Fu, H., Zhang, J., Lv, X., Tang, J. & Xu, X. (2012) Studies on removal of NH4+-N from aqueous solution by using the activated carbons derived from rice husk, Biomass and bioenergy, 43, pp. 18–25.