The Influence of Biomass Ash on the Migration of Heavy Metals in the Flooded Soil Profile - Model Experiment

Open access


Soils that have been exposed to flood waters can be heavily polluted by inorganic and organic compounds. They are mainly compounds which appear in dissolved or suspended form flowing together with heavily laden floodwater, as well as compounds created as a result of reactions in the soil profile, mostly due to anaerobic transformation of organic matter. Heavy metals brought with flood waters are absorbed by the soil and also washed out from flood sediments by precipitation when the flood recedes. This paper presents the results of research on the effects of fertilization with ash from incineration or pyrolysis of biomass on the migration process of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, Mn) in the arable layer of soil. It has been shown that the metals in the flood sediment migrate actively in the soil profile what leads to the enrichment of the soils, also in the case of the soil fertilization with biomass ash.

[1] Antonkiewicz, J. (2009). Use incineration ash for binding heavy metals in soils. Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, 41, 398–405 (in Polish).

[2] Banach, A.M., Banach, K., Visser, E.J.W., Stępniewska, Z., Smits, A.J.M., Roelofs, J.G.M. & Lamers, L.P.M. (2009). Effects of summer fl ooding on fl oodplain biogeochemistry in Poland; implications for increased fl ooding frequency, Biogeochemistry, 92, 247–262.

[3] Barbusiński, K. & Nocoń, W. (2011). Heavy Metal Compounds in the Bottom Sediments of the River Klodnica (Upper Silesia), Environmental Pollution Control, 33, 1, 13–17 (in Polish).

[4] Bojakowska, I. (2003). Characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their occurrence in environment, Biuletyn Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego 405, 5–28 (in Polish).

[5] Brandli, R.C., Bucheli, T.D., Kupper, D., Furrer, R., Stadelmann, F.X. & Tarradellas, J. (2005). Persistent organic pollutants in source-separated compost and its feedstock materials – a review for fi eld study, Journal of Environmental Quality, 34, 3 735–760.

[6] Cappuyns, V. & Swennen, R. (2008). The application of pHstat leaching tests to assess the pH-dependent release of trace metals from soils, sediments and waste materials, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 158, 185–195.

[7] Chen, B., Xuan, X., Zhu, L., Wang, J.J., Gao, Y., Yang, K., Shen, X. & Lou, B. (2004). Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters, sediments and soils of Hangzhou City, China, Water Research, 38, 3558–3568.

[8] Ciesielczuk, T., Kusza, G. & Nemś, A. (2011). Fertilization with biomass ashes as a source of trace elements for soils, Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, 49, 219–227 (in Polish).

[9] Ciesielczuk, T., Kusza, G. & Poluszyńska, J. (2006). Assessment of PAHs and the total content of organic master In landfi ll leachate and groundwater, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering, 13, 11, 1225–1230.

[10] Ciesielczuk, T. & Kusza, G. (2009). Heavy metal assessment in solid municipal wastes composts as a border for fertilizing use, Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, 41, 347–354 (in Polish).

[11] Ciesielczuk, T., Kusza, G. & Karwaczyńska, U. (2011). Natural usage of bottom sediments on the base of existing law rules, Annual Set The Environment Protection (Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska), 13, 1327–1338 (in Polish).

[12] Dzierżanowski, K. & Gawroński, S.W. (2011). Analysis of heavy metals content in soil and dandelion leaves in the vicinity of a busy urban street using a handheld XRF spectrometer, Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, 50, 202–211 (in Polish).

[13] Hobbelen, P.H.F., van den Brink, P.J., Hobbelen, J.F. & van Gestel, C.A.M. (2006). Effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivore communities in a contaminated fl oodplain area, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38, 1596–1607.

[14] Karczewska, A., Bogda, A., Wolszczak, M., Gałka, B., Szopka, K. & Kabała C. (2009). Copper, lead, and zinc in soils within the industrial part of Różanka district in Wrocław, Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, 41, 516–522 (in Polish).

[15] Kluska, H. (2004). Dynamics of soil sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of routes with intensive traffi c, Archives of Environmental Protection, 30, 2, 83–93.

[16] Kochanowska, K. & Kusza, G. (2011). Infl uence of snow removal with chemicals on sorption properties of rendzinas in the town of Opole, Chemia, Dydaktyka, Ekologia, 16, 1–2, 41–45 (in Polish).

[17] Kusza, G. & Ciesielczuk, T. (2008). Selected physical and chemical properties of mineral alluvia formed within the area of Krapkowice county after the great fl ood in the year 1997, Annual Set The Environment Protection (Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska), 10, 697–704 (in Polish).

[18] Kuziemska, B. & Kalembasa, S. (2009). Infl uence of soil contamination with nickel and liming on lead and manganese contents in red clover biomass, Archives of Environmental Protection, 35, 1, 95–105.

[19] Kuziemska, B. & Kalembasa, S. (2010). Infl uence of liming and organic fertilization on yield and content of selected heavy metals in the biomass of orchard grass, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering, 17, 4–5, 423–430.

[20] Laskowski, S., Trawczyńska, A. & Tołoczko, W. (2005). Polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in arable soils in proximity of communication tracts near Lodz City, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering, 12, 7, 709–715.

[21] Lis J. & Pasieczna, A. (1995). The geochemical atlas of Poland, Warszawa 1995 (in Polish).

[22] Markiewicz-Patkowska, J., Hursthouse, A. & Przybyla-Kij, H. (2005). The interaction of heavy metals with urban soils: sorption behavior of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn with a typical mixed brownfi eld deposit, Environment International, 31, 513–521.

[23] Mugni, H., Ronco, A. & Bonetto, C. (2011). Insecticide toxicity to Hyalella curvispina in runoff and stream water within a soybean farm (Buenos Aires, Argentina), Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 74, 350–354.

[24] Oetken, M., Stachel, B., Pfenninger, M. & Oehlmann, J. (2005). Impact of a fl ood disaster on sediment toxicity in a major river system – the Elbe fl ood 2002 as a case study, Environmental Pollution, 134, 87–95.

[25] Oleszczuk, P., Baran, S., Baranowska, E. & Pranagal J. (2007). Content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term fl ooded soil – model research, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, 14, 1, 109–116.

[26] Pasquini, M.W. & Alexander, M.J. (2004). Chemical properties of urban waste ash produced by open burning on the Jos Plateau: implications for agriculture. The Science of the Total Environment, 319, 225–240.

[27] Rudis, M., Valenta, P., Valentova, J. & Nol, O. (2009). Assessment of the deposition of polluted sediments transferred by a catastrophic fl ood and related changes in groundwater quality, Journal of Hydrology, 369, 326–335.

[28] de Roo, A., Schmuck, G., Perdigao, V. & Thielen, J. (2003). The infl uence of historic land use changes and future planned land use scenarios on fl oods in the Oder catchment, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 28, 1291–1300.

[29] Rosik-Dulewska, Cz., Karwaczyńska, U. & Ciesielczuk, T. (2008). The impact of municipal landfi ll on the concentration of heavy metals in genetic soil horizons,

[In] Management of Pollutant Emission from Landfi lls and Sludge; Pawłowski, Dudzińska & Pawłowski (eds), 117–124, Taylor&Francis Group, London 2008.

[30] Rosik-Dulewska, Cz., Karwaczyńska, U. & Ciesielczuk, T. (2010). Leaching of soluble components from fertilizers based on sewage sludge and ashes,

[In] Environmental Engineering III; Pawłowski, Dudzińska & Pawłowski (eds), 417–423, Taylor&Francis Group, London 2010.

[31] Solanki R. & Dhankhar R. (2011). Biochemical changes and adaptive strategies of plants under heavy metal stress, Biologia, 66, 2, 195–204.

[32] Stanisławska-Glubiak, E. & Korzeniowska, J. (2007). Remediation effect of lime and dolomite in copper and zinc contaminated soil, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering, 5–6, 14, 549–555.

[33] Steinnes, E., Grodzińska, K., Szarek-Łukaszewska, G. & Nygard, T. (2005). Concentrations of eight trace metals in natural surface soils: a comparison between Poland and Norway, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering, 5–6, 12, 603–609.

[34] Unger, I.M., Muzika, R.M. & Motavalli, P.P. (2010). The effect of fl ooding and residue incorporation on soil chemistry, germination and seedling growth, Environmental and Experimental Botany, 69, 113–120.

[35] Weber, J., Karczewska, A., Drozd, J., Liczna, M., Liczna, S., Jamroz, E. & Kocowicz, A. (2007). Agricultural and ecological aspects of a sandy soil as affected by the application of municipal solid waste composts, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, 1294–1302.

[36] Wiśniowska-Kielian, B. & Czech, T. (2008). Post-effect dredged sediment on trace elements in maize (Zea mays L.) biomass, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering, 15, 14, 1173–1181.

[37] Witt, G. & Siegel, H. (2000). The Consequences of the Oder Flood in 1997 on the Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Oder River Estuary, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 12, 1124–1131.

[38] Wolska, L. & Mędrzycka, K. (2009). Assessing the Ecotoxicity of the Bottom Sediments from the Sea Ports of Gdansk and Gdynia, Environmental Pollution Control, 31, 1, 49–52 (in Polish).

[39] Yang, Y., Ligouis, B., Pies, C., Grathwohl, P. & Hofmann, T. (2008). Occurrence of coal and coal-derived particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a river fl oodplain soil, Environmental Pollution, 151, 121–129.

[40] Yao, F.X., Macías, F, Virgel, S., Blanco, F., Jiang, X. & Arbestain, M.C. (2009). Chemical changes in heavy metals in the leachates from Technosols, Chemosphere, 77, 29–35.

[41] Zhang, Ch., Wu, L., Luo, Y., Zhang, H. & Christie, P. (2008). Identifying sources of soil inorganic pollutants on a regional scale using a multivariate statistical approach: Role of pollutant migration and soil physicochemical properties, Environmental Pollution, 151, 470–476.

Archives of Environmental Protection

The Journal of Institute of Environmental Engineering and Committee of Environmental Engineering of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.708
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.835

CiteScore 2017: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.371
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.737

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 172 169 25
PDF Downloads 71 70 8