In this study, novel polyacrylonitrile/polystyrene (PAN/PS) blend has been prepared and reinforced with carbon nanoparticle to form polyacrylonitrile/polystyrene/carbon nanoparticle (PAN/PS/CNP) nanocomposite foam. Acid-functional carbon nanoparticle (0.1-3 wt.%) was used as nano-reinforcement for PAN/PS blend matrix. 2’-azobisisobutyronitrile was employed as foaming agent. The PAN/PS/CNP nanocomposite foams have been tested for structure, morphology, mechanical properties, thermal stability, non-flammability, water uptake, and toxic ion removal. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy exposed unique nanocellular morphology owing to physical interaction between the matrix and functional CNP. PAN/PS/CNP 0.1 Foam with 0.1 wt.% nanofiller had compression strength, modulus, and foam density of 41.8 MPa, 22.3 GPa, and 0.9 mgcm−3, respectively. Nanofiller loading of 3wt.% (PAN/PS/CNP 3 Foam) considerably enhanced the compression strength, modulus, and foam density as 68.2 MPa, 37.7 GPa, and 1.9 mgcm−3, respectively. CNP reinforcement also enhanced the initial weight loss and maximum decomposition temperature of PAN/PS/CNP 3 Foam to 541 and 574 ºC, relative to neat foam (T0 = 411 ºC; T10 = 459 ºC). Nanocomposite foams have also shown excellent flame retardancy as V-0 rating and high char yield of up to 57% were attained. Due to hydrophilic nature of functional carbon nanoparticle, water absorption capacity of 3 wt.% nanocomposite foam was 30% higher than that of pristine foam. Moreover, novel foams were also tested for the removal of toxic Pb2+ ions. PAN/PS/CNP 3 Foam has shown much higher ion removal capacity (166 mg/g) and efficiency (99 %) than that of PAN/PS foam having removal capacity and efficiency of 90 mg/g and 45 %, respectively.
1. Partovi-Azar, P., Jand, S.P., Kaghazchi, P.: Electronic, Magnetic, and Transport Properties of Polyacrylonitrile-Based Carbon Nanofibers of Various Widths: Density-Functional Theory Calculations. Physical Review Applied 9 (2018) 014012.
3. Bayramoğlu, G., Metin, A.Ü., Arıca, M.Y.: Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile film by anchoring conductive polyaniline and determination of uricase adsorption capacity and activity. Applied Surface Science 256 (2010) 6710-6716.
4. Li, P., Wang, Z., Yang, L., Zhao, S., Song, P., Khan, B.: A novel loose-NF membrane based on the phosphorylation and cross-linking of polyethyleneimine layer on porous PAN UF membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 555 (2018) 56-68.
5. Kausar, A., Ullah, W., Muhammad, B., Siddiq, M.: Novel mechanically stable, heat resistant and nonflammable functionalized polystyrene/expanded graphite nanocomposites. Advances in Materials Science 14 (2014) 61-74.
6. Tuli, S.K., Roy, A.L., Elgammal, R.A., Tian, M., Zawodzinski, T.A., Fujiwara, T.: Effect of Morphology on Anion Conductive Properties in Self-Assembled Polystyrene-Based Copolymer Membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 565 (2018) 213-225
7. Karanikas, S., Economou, I.G.: Molecular simulation of structure, thermodynamic and transport properties of polyacrylonitrile, polystyrene and their alternating copolymers in high temperatures. European Polymer Journal 47 (2011) 735-745.
8. Yang, Y., Daniels, E.S., Klein, A.: Synthesis of polyacrylonitrile/polystyrene latex particles that contain platinum. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 132 (2015).
9. Kim, Y., Kim, S., Noh, S., Kim, S., Park, G., Le, T.H., Han, H., Kim, Y.A., Yoon, H.: Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Mediated Physical Gelation of Binary Polymer Blends: An Efficient Route to Versatile Porous Carbon Electrode Materials. Chemical Engineering Journal 353 (2018) 849-857
14. Wu, J., An, A.K., Guo, J., Lee, E.J., Farid, M.U., Jeong, S.: 2017. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability. Chemical Engineering Journal 314 (2017) 526-536.
15. Echegoyen, L., Ortiz, A., Chaur, M.N., Palkar, A.J.: Carbon Nano Onions. Chemistry of Nanocarbons (2010) 463-483.
16. Bartolome, J.P., Fragoso, A.: Preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of carbon nano-onions via supramolecular crown ether-ammonium interactions with aminated biocompatible polymers. Journal of Molecular Liquids 269 (2018) 905-911.
17. Kausar, A.: Carbon nano onion as versatile contender in polymer compositing and advance application. Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures 25 (2017) 109-123.
18. Peled, E., Menachem, C., Bar~Tow, D., Melman, A.: Improved Graphite Anode for Lithium~Ion Batteries Chemically Bonded Solid Electrolyte Interface and Nanochannel Formation. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 143 (1996) L4-L7.
19. Ye, S., Vijh, A.K.: A New Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Based on Carbonized Polyacrylonitrile Foam The Nature of Platinum~Support Interactions. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 144 (1997) 90-95.
20. Wang, J., Luo, C., Qi, G., Pan, K., Cao, B.: Mechanism study of selective heavy metal ion removal with polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats. Applied Surface Science 316 (2014) 245-250.
21. Bartelmess, J., Giordani, S.: Carbon nano-onions (multi-layer fullerenes): chemistry and applications. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 5 (2014) 1980.
22. Yang, Y., Daniels, E.S., Klein, A.: Synthesis of polyacrylonitrile/polystyrene latex particles that contain platinum. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 132 (2015).
23. Kausar, A.: Polyurethane/Poly(2-chloro-5-methoxyaniline) and carbon nano-onion-based nanocomposite: physical properties and anti-corrosion behavior. Materials Research Innovations (2018) 1-9.
24. Kausar, A.: Polyimide, polybenzimidazole-in situ-polyaniline nanoparticle and carbon nano-onionbased nanocomposite designed for corrosion protection. International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization 22 (2017) 557-567.
25. Kausar, A.: Effect of nanofiller dispersion on morphology, mechanical and conducting properties of electroactive shape memory Poly (urethane-urea)/functional nanodiamond composite. Advances in Materials Science 15 (2015) 14-28.
26. Kausar, A.: Polycarbonate/Polypropylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride and Nano-Zeolite-Based Nanocomposite Membrane: Mechanical and Gas Separation Performance. Advances in Materials Science 16 (2016) 17-28.
27. Shen, B., Li, Y., Zhai, W., Zheng, W.: Compressible graphene-coated polymer foams with ultralow density for adjustable electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8 (2016) 8050-8057.
28. Kuang, T., Chang, L., Chen, F., Sheng, Y., Fu, D., Peng, X.: Facile preparation of lightweight high-strength biodegradable polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite foams for electromagnetic interference shielding. Carbon 105 (2016) 305-313.
29. Cai, Y., Wang, Q., Wei, Q., You, Q., Huang, F., Song, L., Hu, Y., Gao, W.: Structure, thermal, and antibacterial properties of polyacrylonitrile/ferric chloride nanocomposite fibers by electrospinning. International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization 15(2010) 110-118.
30. Beyli, P.T., Doğan, M., Gündüz, Z., Alkan, M. and Turhan, Y.: Synthesis, Characterization and Their Antimicrobial Activities of Boron Oxide/Poly (Acrylic Acid) Nanocomposites: Thermal and Antimicrobial Properties. Advances in Materials Science 18(2018), 28-36.
31. Kausar, A.: Polyamide 1010/Polythioamide Blend Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelet for Automotive Part Application. Advances in Materials Science 17(2017) 24-36
32. Rettenbacher, A.S., Perpall, M.W., Echegoyen, L., Hudson, J., Smith, D.W.: Radical addition of a conjugated polymer to multilayer fullerenes (carbon nano-onions). Chemistry of Materials 19 (2007) 1411-1417.
33. Zhao, J., Ren, W., Cheng, H.M.: Graphene sponge for efficient and repeatable adsorption and desorption of water contaminations. Journal of Materials Chemistry 22 (2012) 20197-20202.
34. Landowski, M., Budzik, M., Imielińska, K.: Water absorption and blistering of glass fibre-reinforced polymer marine laminates with nanoparticle-modified coatings. Journal of Composite Materials 48 (2014), 2805-2813.
35. Kizilduman, B.K., Alkan, M., Doğan, M., Turhan, Y.: Al-Pillared-Montmorillonite (AlPMt)/Poly (Methyl Methacrylate)(PMMA) Nanocomposites: The Effects of Solvent Types and Synthesis Methods. Advances in Materials Science 17 (2017) 5-23.
36. Perić, J., Trgo, M. and Medvidović, N.V.: Removal of zinc, copper and lead by natural zeolite—a comparison of adsorption isotherms. Water Research 38(2004) 1893-1899.
37. Musico, Y.L.F., Santos, C.M., Dalida, M.L.P., Rodrigues, D.F.: Improved removal of lead (II) from water using a polymer-based graphene oxide nanocomposite. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1 (2013) 3789-3796.
38. Pyrzyńska, K., Bystrzejewski, M.: Comparative study of heavy metal ions sorption onto activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, and carbon-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 362 (2010) 102-109.
39. Zhao, X., Jia, Q., Song, N., Zhou, W., Li, Y.: Adsorption of Pb (II) from an aqueous solution by titanium dioxide/carbon nanotube nanocomposites: kinetics, thermodynamics, and isotherms. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 55 (2010) 4428-4433.