The transition from intra- to extra-uterine life is one of the greatest physiological challenges that occur in the life of animals. Immediately after birth, newborn calves have to adapt to new environmental and feeding conditions. Namely, at birth a break of the thermal balance occurs, since calves abruptly pass from a 38.8°C temperature in utero to an environmental temperature that is generally lower than 20°C. Additionally, at birth, the energy intake shifts from a continuous parenteral supply of nutrients (mainly glucose) to discontinuous colostrum and milk intake with lactose and fat as the main energy sources. Therefore, the most important issues related to metabolic changes during the transition from intra- to extra-uterine life are related to maintaining the homoeothermic conditions and control of energy metabolism. Those metabolic adaptations are under control of the endocrine system that is relatively mature at birth, but still requires morphological and functional changes after birth. Key hormones whose concentrations are significantly changed around birth and are involved in an adequate adaptation of calves to extra-uterine life are those related to stress at birth (cortisol and cathecholamines), glucoregulatory processes (insulin and glucagon), thermogenesis (thyroid hormones) and growth (IGF axis).
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