Virtualization has enabled the commoditization of cloud computing, as the hardware resources have become available to run different environments and share computing resources amongst different enterprises. Two technology types are commonly used in virtualization of hardware, namely, hypervisor and container. The present paper concerns only container technologies.
A comprehensive overview of the container technologies for virtualization and the dynamics of their popularity have not been available yet. Without such an overview, the informed fast choice of technologies is hindered. To fill this knowledge gap, a systemic literature review was conducted to reveal the most popular container technologies and the trends in their research.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 A. Khajeh-Hosseini D. Greenwood and I. Sommerville “Cloud Migration: A Case Study of Migrating an Enterprise It System to IaaS” in 2010 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Cloud Computing pp. 450–457. https://doi.org/10.1109/cloud.2010.37
 P. Barham B. Dragovic K. Fraser S. Hand T. Harris A. Ho R. Neugebauer I. Pratt and A. Warfield “Xen and the Art of Virtualization” in SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 2003 vol. 37 pp. 164–177. https://doi.org/10.1145/1165389.945462
 D. Bernstein “Containers and Cloud: From LXC to Docker to Kubernetes” IEEE Cloud Computing vol. 1 issue 3 pp. 81–84 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/mcc.2014.51
 Build Ship and Run Any App Anywhere. [Online]. Available: https://www.docker.com/what-docker [Accessed: 10 Dec. 2017].
 H. Kang M. Le and S. Tao “Container and Microservice Driven Design for Cloud Infrastructure DevOps” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Engineering (IC2E) pp. 202–211. https://doi.org/10.1109/ic2e.2016.26
 L. Rodero-Merino L. M. Vaquero E. Caron A. Muresan and F. Desprez “Building Safe PaaS Clouds: A Survey on Security in Multitenant Software Platforms” Computers Security vol. 31 issue 1 pp. 96–108 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2011.10.006
 Scopus: The Largest Abstract and Citation Database of Peer-Reviewed Literature: Scientific Journals Books and Conference Proceedings. [Online]. Available: https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/scopus [Accessed: October. 18 2017].
 R. Mijumbi J. Serrat J. L. Gorricho N. Bouten F. D. Turck and R. Boutaba “Network Function Virtualization: State-of-the-Art and Research Challenges” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials vol. 18 issue 1 pp. 236–262 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/comst.2015.2477041
 A. Verma L. Pedrosa M. Korupolu D. Oppenheimer E. Tune and J. Wilkes “Large-Scale Cluster Management at Google With Borg” in Proc. Tenth European Conference on Computer Systems EuroSys ’15 ACM New York NY USA 2015. https://doi.org/10.1145/2741948.2741964
 R. Morabito J. Kjallman and M. Komu “Hypervisors vs. Lightweight Virtualization: A Performance Comparison” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Engineering pp. 386–393. https://doi.org/10.1109/ic2e.2015.74
 C. Pahl “Containerization and the PaaS Cloud” IEEE Cloud Computing vol. 2 issue 3 pp. 24–31 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/mcc.2015.51
 W. Gerlach W. Tang K. Keegan T. Harrison A. Wilke J. Bischof M. DSouza S. Devoid D. Murphy-Olson N. Desai and F. Meyer “Skyport – Container-Based Execution Environment Management for Multi-Cloud Scientific Workflows” in 2014 5th International Workshop on Data-Intensive Computing in the Clouds pp. 25–32. https://doi.org/10.1109/datacloud.2014.6
 G. Toffetti S. Brunner M. Blöchlinger F. Dudouet and A. Edmonds “An Architecture for Self-Managing Microservices” in Proc. 1st International Workshop on Automated Incident Management in Cloud – AIMC ’15 ACM New York NY USA 2015 pp. 19–24. https://doi.org/10.1145/2747470.2747474
 D. Liu and L. Zhao “The Research and Implementation of Cloud Computing Platform Based on Docker” in 2014 11th International Computer Conference on Wavelet Actiev Media Technology and Information Processing (ICCWAMTIP) pp. 475–478. https://doi.org/10.1109/iccwamtip.2014.7073453
 J. Stubbs W. Moreira and R. Dooley “Distributed Systems of Microservices Using Docker and Serfnode” in 2015 7th International Workshop on Science Gateways pp. 34–39. https://doi.org/10.1109/iwsg.2015.16
 W. Li A. Kanso and A. Gherbi “Leveraging Linux Containers to Achieve High Availability for Cloud Services” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Engineering pp. 76–83. https://doi.org/10.1109/ic2e.2015.17
 M. Selimi A. M. Khan E. Dimogerontakis F. Freitag and R. P. Centelles “Cloud Services in the Guifi.net Community Network” Computer Networks vol. 93 pp. 373–388 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2015.09.007
 Y. Sun J. White S. Eade and D. C. Schmidt “ROAR: A QoS-Oriented Modeling Framework for Automated Cloud Resource Allocation and Optimization” Journal of Systems and Software vol. 116 pp. 146–161 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.006
 C. Zheng and D. Thain “Integrating Containers Into Workflows: A Case Study Using Makeflow Work Queue and Docker” in Proc. 8th International Workshop on Virtualization Technologies in Distributed Computing - VTDC ’15 ACM New York NY USA 2015 pp. 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1145/2755979.2755984
 L. Li T. Tang and W. Chou “A REST Service Framework for Fine-Grained Resource Management in Container-Based Cloud” in 2015 IEEE 8th International Conference on Cloud Computing pp. 645–652. https://doi.org/10.1109/cloud.2015.91
 M. Abdelbaky J. Diaz-Montes M. Parashar M. Unuvar and M. Steinder “Docker Containers Across Multiple Clouds and Data Centers” in 2015 IEEE/ACM 8th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC) pp. 368–371.
 Kubernetes: Open-Source System for Automating Deployment Scaling and Management of Containerized Applications. [Online]. Available: https://kubernetes.io [Accessed: 20 Oct. 2017].
 Apache Mesos: A Distributed Systems Kernel. [Online]. Available: https://mesos.apache.org [Accessed: 20 Oct. 2017].
 A. Shah “Ten Years of KVM” 2016. [Online]. Available: https://lwn.net/Articles/705160/ [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2018].
 CoreOS powers the world’s container infrastructure. [Online]. Available: https://coreos.com/why [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2018].
 R. Morabito “Power Consumption of Virtualization Technologies: An Empirical Investigation” in 2015 IEEE/ACM 8th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC) Limassol 2015 pp. 522–527.
 M. Schwarzkopf A. Konwinski M. Abd-El-Malek and J. Wilkes “Omega: Flexible Scalable Schedulers for Large Compute Clusters” in Proc. 8th ACM European Conference on Computer Systems (EuroSys ’13) ACM New York NY USA 2013 pp. 351–364. https://doi.org/10.1145/2465351.2465386
 State of the Cloud Report. [Online]. Available: https://assets.rightscale.com/uploads/pdfs/RightScale-2017-State-of-the-Cloud-Report.pdf [Accessed: 18 Mar. 2018].
 rkt vs other projects. [Online]. Available: https://coreos.com/rkt/docs/latest/rkt-vs-other-projects.html [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2018].
 A. Fulay “Containers Deep Dive – LXC vs DockerG” Jan. 2017. [Online]. Available: https://robinsystems.com/blog/containers-deep-divelxc-vs-docker-comparison/ [Accessed: 18 Mar. 2018].
 Open Container Initiative. [Online]. Available: https://www.opencontainers.org/ [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2018].
 Borg: The Predecessor to Kubernetes. [Online]. Available: http://blog.kubernetes.io/2015/04/borg-predecessor-to-kubernetes.html [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2018].
 Amazon AKS. [Online]. Available: https://aws.amazon.com/eks/ [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2018].
 Azure Container Service (AKS). [Online]. Available: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/services/container-service/ [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2018].
 Docker Support for Kubernetes. [Online]. Available: https://www.docker.com/kubernetes [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2018].
 B. Stewart “Why Kubernetes vs. Swarm is the Wrong Question” 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.wintellect.com/kubernetes-vs-swarmwrong-question/ [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2018].
 R. Morabito V. Cozzolino A. Y. Ding N. Beijar and J. Ott “Consolidate IoT Edge Computing with Lightweight Virtualization” IEEE Network vol. 32 no. 1 pp. 102–111 Jan. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/mnet.2018.1700175