The Adaptation Approach for Affective Game-Based Assessment

Open access


Game-based learning as a learning approach has been popular for ages; however, game-based assessment as a trend started to evolve only few years ago. Since knowledge assessment is more associated with negative emotions, systems intended to assess knowledge should take into consideration emotions as well. The analysis of existing studies shows that systems with integrated game-based assessment seldom utilise learner’s emotions for provision of adaptation. The main aim of the present paper is to introduce an adaptation approach for to affective game-based assessment.

[1] V. Shute, F. Ke, and L. Wang, “Assessment and Adaptation in Games,” Instructional Techniques to Facilitate Learning and Motivation of Serious Games, pp. 59–78, 2017.

[2] C. Conati and H. Maclaren, “Empirically Building and Evaluating a Probabilistic Model of User Affect,” User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 267–303, 2009.

[3] H. van Oostendorp, E. D. van der Spek, and J. Linssen, “Adapting the Complexity Level of a Serious Game to the Proficiency of Players,” EAI Endorsed Transactions on Serious Games, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1–8, 2014.

[4] GlassLab, Inc., “SimCityEDU: Pollution Challenge!,” 2014 [Online]. Available:

[5] N. Whitton, “Games as Reward Mechanisms,” Digital Games and Learning: Research and Theory, pp. 99–108, 2014.

[6] A. Mavridis and T. Tsiatsos, “Game-Based Assessment: Investigating the Impact on Test Anxiety and Exam Performance,” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 137–150, 2017.

[7] M. W. Eysenck and M. G. Calvo, “Anxiety and Performance: The Processing Efficiency Theory,” Cognition & Emotion, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 409–434, 1992.

[8] V. J. Shute, S. D'Mello, R. Baker, K. Cho, N. Bosch, J. Ocumpaugh, M. Ventura, and V. Almeda, “Modeling How Incoming Knowledge, Persistence, Affective States, and In-Game Progress Influence Student Learning from an Educational Game,” Computers & Education, vol. 86, pp. 224–235, 2015.

[9] M. Prensky, “Fun, play and games: what makes games engaging?,” in Digital Game-Based Learning, pp. 106–144, 2001.

[10] E. Novak and T. E. Johnson, “Assessment of Student's Emotions in Game-Based Learning,” Assessment in Game Based Learning: Foundations, Innovations, and Perspectives, pp. 379–399, 2012.

[11] K. Kiili and H. Ketamo, “Evaluating Cognitive and Affective Outcomes of a Digital Game-Based Math Test,” IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 2017.

[12] J. Asbell-Clarke, E. Rowe, and E. Sylvan, “Assessment Design for Emergent Game-Based Learning,” CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems on – CHI EA '13, pp. 679–684, 2013.

[13] D. Eseryel, D. Ifenthaler, and X. Ge, “Alternative Assessment Strategies for Complex Problem Solving in Game-Based Learning Environments,” Multiple Perspectives on Problem Solving and Learning in the Digital Age, pp. 159–178, 2011.

[14] D. Ifenthaler, D. Eseryel, and X. Ge, “Assessment for Game-Based Learning,” Assessment in Game-Based Learning, pp. 1–8, 2012.

[15] V. Shute and M. Ventura, Measuring and supporting learning in games: Stealth Assessment. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013.

[16] P. Wilkinson, “Affective Educational Games: Utilizing Emotions in Game-Based Learning,” Proceedings of the 2013 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES), pp. 1–8, 2013.

[17] B. Bontchev, “Adaptation in affective video games: a literature review,” Cybernetics and Information Technologies, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 3–34, 2016.

[18] J. P. Gee, Good video games and good learning: Collected essays on video games, learning and literacy. New York: Peter Lang, 2007.

[19] K. Becker, “Pedagogy in Commercial Video Games,” Games and Simulations in Online Learning. Research and Development Frameworks, pp. 21–47, 2007.

[20] M. Csikszentmihalyi, Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

[21] A. J. Elliott and H. A. McGregor, “A 2 × 2 Achievement Goal Framework,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 80, pp. 501–519, 2001.

[22] R. Ghali, S. Ouellet, and C. Frasson, “LewiSpace: An Exploratory Study with a Machine Learning Model in an Educational Game,” Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 192–201, 2016.

[23] N. Bosch et al., “Detecting Student Emotions in Computer-Enabled Classrooms,” Proceedings of the 25th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 4125–4129, 2016.

[24] C. Conati and M. Gutica, “Interaction with an Edu-Game: A Detailed Analysis of Student Emotions and Judges' Perceptions,” International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 975–1010, 2016.

[25] J. Sabourin and J. Lester, “Affect and Engagement in Game-Based Learning Environments,” IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 45–56, 2014.

[26] R. Sawyer, A. Smith, J. Rowe, R. Azevedo, and J. Lester, “Enhancing Student Models in Game-based Learning with Facial Expression Recognition,” Proceedings of the 25th Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization – UMAP '17, pp. 192–201, 2017.

[27] B. Lehman, D. Hebert, T. Jackson, and L. Grace, “Affect and Experience: Case Studies in Games and Test-Taking,” in Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Extended Abstracts, pp. 917–924, 2017.

[28] S. Petrovica and M. Pudane, “Emotion Modeling for Simulation of Affective Student-Tutor Interaction: Personality Matching,” Education and Information Technologies, vol. 10, pp. 159–167, 2016.

[29] A. Mehrabian, “Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance: A General Framework for Describing and Measuring Individual Differences in Temperament,” Current Psychology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 261–292, 1996.

[30] Affectiva, “Products – SDK&API,” Affectiva, 2017 [Online]. Available:

Applied Computer Systems

The Journal of Riga Technical University

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 281 263 23
PDF Downloads 174 170 13