TLC determination of some flavanones in the buds of different genus Populus species and hybrids

Open access


Flavonoids in the buds of eight Populus species and hybrids were detected and compared with the aid of an optimized TLC method. Separation of 17 flavonoid aglycones belonging to different groups, namely, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavanonols, previously described as constituents of poplar buds, was performed on silica gel plates using a hexane/ethyl acetate/formic acid (60:40:1.3, V/V/V) mixture as the mobile phase. Pinocembrin and pinostrobin were found in the majority of analyzed poplar buds. For quantitative analysis of both compounds, two TLC evaluation modes, densitometric and videodensitometric, were compared and the established methods were validated. Concentrations of flavanones in some extracts differed slightly or significantly due to the analyzed plant matrix complexity and the TLC evaluation mode applied. Poplar buds rich in flavanones originated from P. × canadensis ‘Robusta’ (1.82 and 2.23 g per 100 g, resp.) and P. balsamifera (1.17 and 2.24 g per 100 g, resp.).

1. P. R. Bradley, British Herbal Compendium, British Herbal Medicine Association, Bournemouth 1992, Vol. 1.

2. German Commission E Monograph, Poplar bud (Populi gemma), February 1, 1990;; last access date January 18, 2018

3. S. Dudonné, P. Poupard, P. Coutière, M. Woillez, T. Richard, J. M. Mérillon and X. Vitrac, Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of poplar bud (Populus nigra) extract: individual antioxidant contribution of phenolics and transcriptional effect on skin aging, J. Agric. Food Chem. 59 (2011) 4527–4536;

4. K. Wang, J. Zhang, S. Ping, Q. Ma, X. Chen, H. Xuan, J. Shi, C. Zhang and F. Hu, Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of Chinese propolis and buds from poplar (Populus × canadensis), J. Ethnopharmacol. 155 (2014) 300–311;

5. N. Debbache-Benaida, D. Atmani-Kilani, V. B. Schini-Keirth, N. Djebbli and D. Atmani, Pharmacological potential of Populus nigra extract as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective agent, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 3 (2013) 697–704;

6. E. Wollenweber, Flavonoidmuster als systematisches Merkmalin der Gattung Populus Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 3 (1975) 35–45.

7. E. V. Isaeva, G. A. Lozhkina and T. V. Ryazanova, A study of the alcohol extract from balsam poplar buds, Russ. J. Bioorg. Chem. 36 (2010) 929–933;

8. Y. K. Park, S. M. Alencar and C. L. Aguiar, Botanical origin and chemical composition of Brazilian propolis, J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (2002) 2502–2506;

9. J. Adelmann, M. Passos, D. H. Breyer, M. H. Rocha dos Santos, C. Lenz, N. F. Leite, F. M. Lanςas and J. D. Fontana, Exotic flora dependence of an unusual Brazilian propolis: the pinocembrin biomarker by capillary techniques, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 43 (2007) 174–178;

10. V. Bankova, A. Dyulgerov, S. Popov, L. Evstatieva, L. Kuleva, O. Pureb and Z. Zamjansan, Propolis produced in Bulgaria and Mongolia: phenolic compounds and plant origin, Apidologie 23 (1992) 79–85.

11. W. Greenaway, J. May, T. Scaysbrook and F. R. Whatley, Compositions of bud and leaf exudates of some Populus species compared, Z. Naturforsch. C: Biosci. 47 (1992) 329–334;

12. J. Zhang, X. Cao, S. Ping, K. Wang, J. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zheng and F. Hu, Comparisons of ethanol extracts of Chinese propolis (poplar type) and poplar gums based on the antioxidant activities and molecular mechanism, Evid-Based Complem. Altern. Med. 2015, Article ID 307594 (15 pages);

13. Z. Cui-ping, H. Shuai, W. Wen-ting, P. Shun, S. Xiao-ge, L. Ya-jing and H. Fu-Iiang, Development of high-performance liquid chromatographic for quality and authenticity control of Chinese propolis, J. Food Sci. 79 (2014) C1315-C1322;

14. A. Rasul, F. M. Millimouno, W. A. Eltayb, M. Ali, J. Li and X. Li, Pinocembrin: A novel natural compound with versatile pharmacological and biological activities, BioMed. Res. Int. 2013, Article ID 379850 (9 pages);

15. N. K. Patel, G. Jaiswal and K. K. Bhutani, A review on biological sources, chemistry and pharmacological activities of pinostrobin, Nat. Prod. Res. 30 (2016) 2017–2027;

16. International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, ICH Harmonized Tripartite Guideline, Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology Q2(R1), Current Step 4 version, Nov 1996, Geneva, Nov 2005;; last access date January 18, 2018

17. J. Bertrams, M. B. Müller, N. Kunz, D. R. Kammerer and F. C. Stintzing, Phenolic compounds for botanical origin determination of German propolis samples based on TLC and TLC-MS, J. Appl. Bot. Food Qual. 86 (2013) 143–153;

18. J. A. Duke, CRC Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton (FL) 1992.

Acta Pharmaceutica

The Journal of Croatian Pharmaceutical Society

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.071
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.623

CiteScore 2017: 1.46

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.362
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.642

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 183 183 48
PDF Downloads 62 62 18